Специализированный измеритель напряженности электрического поля для измерения эффективности экранирования
The fresh surfaces formation provided by materials destruction or cleavage often leads to surfaces charging and strong electric fields generation. These fields can create the high energy electrons beams and Bremsstrahlung radiation. For example the destruction of quartz and granite is accomplished by low intensity relativistic electron fluxes creation. However the adhesive tapes peeling is accomplished by significantly more intensive electron beams creation. These beams can provide hard irradiation of skin and other layers of biological tissues during the adhesive tapes separation. We will estimate this irradiation using the generalized diffusion model for non-relativistic electrons.
A vocationally-oriented course on Physics with medico-biological direction is proposed in this book. The matters of application of physical methods for substances investigation are considered here in detail.
The book may ne helpful for students of medical and pharmaceutical institutes of higher education and colleges, chemical, biological and pharmaceutical faculties of universities, as well as for students of core classes and teachers of medico-biological specialties.
Experiments indicating acceleration of charged particles as a result of separation of solid surfaces are analyzed. As a possible mechanism of such acceleration, generation of surface charge on the separated surfaces of a cleaved ionic crystal is considered. The maximum electric field generated due to the charging of the separated surfaces and the energy of electrons accelerated in such a field are estimated. It is shown that, for the maximum attainable electric field, conditions are created for the generation of runaway electrons that, even at atmospheric pressure, electrons are accelerated to high energies, not experiencing collisions with gas particles.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.