Интеллектуалы в поисках спасения: идеологические виртуозы XX века в историко-социологической перспективе
The article is devoted to the problem of studying the activities of revolutionary and ideological virtuosi of the XX century by means of the historical sociology of modernity. It attempts both to identify the main trends in the participation of intellectually active strata of modern societies in the radical transformation of social reality, and to clarify the reasons that pushed them to do so. It is noted that the ideological background of such forms of socio-political radicalism were the symbolic means of challenging the old forms of social reality and constructing the new ones by way of secular ideologies of various types (socialism, communism, anarcho-syndicalism, fascism, national socialism, etc.). The role of conductors of the ideological message of these secular religions of salvation to the masses was usually performed by radical minded intellectuals and students, for whom the worship of new idols and symbols of faith becomes the true meaning of life and struggle. In the XX century it was the intellectuals who acted as the main creators and operators of collective salvation religions and social communities created on their basis. Moreover, they not only tried to save themselves with their help, but at the same time have claimed to have the right to the legitimate monopoly of determining who would be saved and who would not. Acting in this way, radical intellectuals acted as both the creators of the new norm and the agents of the policy of rationalization and rationalization in relation to the masses. The article pays special attention to the characteristics of the creators and social carriers of radical ideological views and the worldviews based on them, as well as the refraction of these utopian visions in the socio-political practice of the last century. In conclusion, it is suggested that Max Weber’s historical sociology and Emile Durkheim’s symbolic theory of the “sacred”, supplemented by modern developments in the field of political sociology and socio-historical anthropology, can serve as a relevant system of theoretical coordinates for the study of ideological and revolutionary virtuosi of the XX century.