Между Дхарамсалой и золотой урной: монгольский буддизм в контексте религиозной политики КНР
The article examines the influence of the religious policy of the People’s Republic of China on the development of the Buddhist Sangha of Mongolia. The author shows that this policy is based on models developed in times of the Qing Empire (1644–1912). There was a single religious space that connected Tibet, China and Mongolia. The key link connecting these Buddhist centers was the tulku institution — the characters of the Buddhist pantheon who were believed to be consciouslyincarnated. Tulkus were born in Tibet and Mongolia, approved by the Dalai Lama or Panchen Lama, while the Qing court tried to control the process. The laws and measures taken by Chinese government agencies actually establish Chinese control over the procedure for the search, approval, enthronement and training of the tulku. This policy directly affects Buddhism in Mongolia, where the institution of Khuvilgaans is being revived and there are close ties with the DalaiLama and the Tibetan diaspora. It was the Dalai Lama who approved most of the living Mongolian tulkus, including the highest — the Tenth Bogdo Gegeen. At the same time, some Mongolian Buddhists reject the Tibetan interference and cooperate with Chinese religious and state organizations. The growth of nationalist sentiments in Mongolia, alongwith China’s religious policy, may eventually lead to the disintegration of the Tibetan-centered structure and the isolation of the Mongolian Sangha under the leadership of the Tenth Bogdo.