Дискурсивное конструирование политической реальности в США: как идеология формирует факты
All over the world and especially in the United States, there is a growing concern about the quality of politically relevant information presented as factual. This is manifested in the growth of research on «fake news», «post-truth», conspiracy theories and fact-checking, as well as in the interest in political epistemology. However, for a number of reasons, science cannot give a universally accepted answer to the question of how knowledge is produced in politics. The article proposes a rationale for a discursive approach to political epistemology in the spirit of epistemological particularism, i.e. recognizing many possible ways of producing knowledge, both in science and beyond. The features of «political knowledge» will depend on its purpose in political discourse, which is obviously different from the purpose of scientific knowledge or «knowledge in general».
The article developes some results of the studies of political discourse, ideology and rhetoric (T. A. van Dijk, R. Wodak). It is proposed to consider the particular «method» of knowledge production as a discursive grand strategy in which epistemological, rhetorical and ideological presuppositions, when combined in a certain way, generate political knowledge of the appropriate type. Theoretical conclusions are illustrated with cases from the modern American political discourse.