Субъект атеистической философии Александра Кожева
This article is devoted to the problem of subjectivity in the perspective of Alexandre Kojève's atheistic philosophy. It will be divided into two parts, the first dealing with Kojève's atheistic philosophy project, its main objects and theses, and the second with the project of negative anthropology, which, while developing in parallel, is in some aspects in conflict with the theory of atheism. In the first part we will analyse the ideal of the sage God-man, who appears at the end of History and embodies the ideal of a free being. We will demonstrate how Kojève undertakes a phenomenological analysis of the "basic atheist intuition" and justify atheism not as a simple negation of the divine but as a Hegelian removal, which entails the appropriation of the transcendent and the divine by the self. In the second part of the paper, the project of atheist philosophy will be placed in the more general context of Kojève's negative anthropology, which, developing in parallel with the project of atheism, provides a theoretical foundation for the justification of the essence of man or self-consciousness as a subject of desire rather than reason. Kojève's negative anthropology, drawing on a phenomenology that parallels Hegel and Heidegger, provides the basis for Kojève's later practical conclusions on History. Using Hegel's dialectic of Slave and Master, we will show that a necessary condition of self-consciousness is alienation from one's desire, which creates an epistemological asymmetry: the Slave belongs to knowledge and the Master to truth. On the basis of the findings of negative anthropology, of which the dialectic of Slave and Master is a part, the article questions the status of the sage God-man as a free being.