Движущая сила малого бизнеса
In the article the author considers the factors, governing by people coming in a small business. These factors can vary depending on the social and economic situation. The author estimates an enterprise potential of the Russian society and analyzes the reasons on which people start to attend to business.
The proceedings from the 15th EDAMBA conference, which took place at the University of Economics in Bratislava on 22nd November 2012 have been prepared as a joint refereed publication of participants presenting their papers at the conference. The aim of EDAMBA as an organisation is to promote the exchange of information, to enhance the mobility of PhD candidates, to promote research cooperation and to increase the quality of PhD programmes and to create an environment of excellence with a European perspective while pursuing the existing diversity.
The article contains the analysis of the impact of information and communication technologies as well as mobile technologies for the conduction of small and medium business in the emerging countries. Special approach is suggested for the development of the concept of business-processes management on small and medium enterprises.
Despite the seemingly improving economic situation in Germany, a major trade partner of East European countries, economic trends in Slovenia, Hungary, Romania and Croatia have not changed much in recent months apart from some signs of a slightly deeper contraction in Slovenia and a bit of a stronger performance in Hungary. The formerly strong links between Germany and these countries' growth rates are gradually becoming weaker, pointing to a sort of "decoupling" between the core and peripheral European countries amid slowly changing foreign trade flows. German exporters are no longer benefiting from credit expansion in Eastern Europe and are increasing trade with faster-growing Asian economies, while growing trade with non-EU countries helped ease economic difficulties and/or supported growth in some East European countries (which have been able to expand trade with non-EU countries). Domestic demand remains subdued in most countries.
We review the transition of the Russian banking sector focusing on the interplay between ownership change and institutional change. We find that the state's withdrawal from commercial banking has been inconsistent and limited in scope. To this day, core banks have yet to be privatized and the state has made a comeback as owner of the dominant market participants. We also look at the new institutions imported into Russia to regulate banking and finance, including rule of law, competition, deposit insurance, confidentiality, bankruptcy, and corporate governance. The unfortunate combination of this new institutional overlay and traditional local norms of behavior have brought Russia to an impasse - the banking sector's ownership structure hinders further advancement of market institutions. Indeed, we may now be witnessing is a retreat from the original market-based goals of transition.
The article summarizes the data from a few tens of in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs – representatives of a small business from six rural districts of the North-East of Kostroma region. The purpose of the interview was to discover expectations and suggestions from entrepreneurs to the local and state government. Interview data reveal the profound contradictions between the business and the government, some of which are hidden from the external observer. These contradictions are based not only on results of the local authority actions, but also on the specific current status of local government that makes it impossible to effectively interact with the business. On the other hand, the development of local businesses has led to a peculiar configuration of the business community, also making it difficult to communicate with the authorities. Particular feature of Middle Russian North business, especially in the highly subsidized Kostroma region, is its total focus on the use of natural resources, almost exclusively forest. Single-industry raw material specialization of the entrepreneurship as well as very narrow and underdeveloped segment of service makes entrepreneurs completely dependent on arbitrariness of local authorities. This, however, does not protect them from the territorial invasions and capture of the market by big outside mining and network companies. As a result of such two-sided attack local business is trying to get protection from the local government that leads to inadmissible merging of business and government and monopolizing of business in almost every rural district. Direct consequences of such a merging are government inefficiency, lack of incentives for business development, and stagnation. Some “evolutionary stable strategy” has been developed, that does not allow winning any of the actors yet saving them from loses in competition with the outside players. Understanding of the inefficiency and dead-end of such an interaction by some entrepreneurs forces them to raise claims to local authority. Interviews analyses resulted in the list of complaints and suggestions on how to optimize an interaction between the local business and local authorities.
The participation of a Russian team in the GEM Consortium made it possible to collect data for Russia on the level of development and the structure of entrepreneurial potential that are comparable to analogous indicators in other countries participating in the GEM. (It should be noted that in 2006 and in 2007 the GEM was based on analysis of survey results from 42 countries, with a total sample of more than 170600 people.). Entrepreneurship is taken to mean any attempt to create a new enterprise or business, including self-employment, the creation of a new entrepreneurial structure or the expansion of a pre-existing business, undertaken by an individual, a group of individuals or an existing business structure.