Что такое path dependence и как ее изучают российские экономисты
In the chapter from comparative economics textbook reality and virtuality are compared; common features and distinctions between old and new comparative science are demonstrated; the main features of comparative method are characterized. The workbook is attached.
The chapter discusses evolution and performance of Russia’s economic institutions. Outcomes and driving forces of institutional change in the country throughout its postcommunist history are analyzed and related to exogenous factors such as culture, resource abundance, and economic inequality. A failure to establish market-supporting institutions, including secure property rights, as a spontaneous outcome of economic liberalization and privatization is explained. It is argued that Russia’s natural wealth drove a wedge between institutions and economic growth. Institutions established de jure do not always function in accordance with their raison d’être and are often misused in pursuit of opportunistic gains. The 2008 global crisis did not have a healing effect on Russian economic institutions. Economic and political elites are unlikely to become champions of institutional modernization in the country, and improvement of Russian institutions could occur in response to grassroots demand articulated by civil society.
This Chapter examines the constitutional basis of the economic system of Russia, the main stages of its development are highlighted and are characterized by the constitutional-legal institutions of economic regulation; analyzed the ratio of the constitutional and economic institutions
The book addresses judicial reforms in a number of post-socialist countries, including Poland, Bulgaria, Baltic states, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and several other former Sovier republics. The focal point is the impact of the Soviet past (Soviet attitude towards law, specifics of early Soviet criminal law, the role of Soviet courts and the phenomenon of the Soviet judicial mentality) on judicial and police reforms.
Effective property rights protection plays a fundamental role in promoting economic performance. Yet measurement problems make the relationship between property rights and entrepreneurship an ambiguous issue. As an advancement on previous research in this paper we propose a new approach to the evaluation of the security of property rights based on direct measures that overcomes some limitations of previous studies. We apply this new metrics to a survey of manufacturing firms in Russia to identify the economic effects associated with the lack of property protection in a transition economy. Our analysis supports the view that there is a close relationship between institutions, property rights and economic growth. Our findings confirm that redistributive risks provide a depressing effect on investment and innovative activity of manufacturing enterprises and potentially result in a huge loss in efficiency and economic growth, which in other institutional settings could have been avoided.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.