Формирование мотивации достижения (рец., на книгу: Vanek M., Hosek V., Man F. Fermevanl vykeneve motivace. — Praha: Univerzita Karlova, 1982. — 218 s.).
Our research was devoted to the problem of achievement motivation in situation of rivalry. We use the quaiexperiment to verify our hypothesis. 92 people, 15 men and 77 women, participated in the research. The results of the quaiexperiment and statistical analysis have shown that students with average achievement motivation in situation of rivalry have more effective results in education activity than students with high and low achievement motivation.
Resources of personality coping potential - achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, and locus of control are considered in the article. Results of empirical research (227 respondents, 115 women, 112 men, average age - 29 years) has shown that motivation to success is negatively connected with the choice of adaptive behavioural strategies of cooperation and collaboration. Thus, pronounced affiliation motivation is connected with the choice of strategies of cooperation and altruism. Fear of rejection has a positive correlation with strategies of retreat and suppression of emotions. Besides, according to our results, internal locus of control is connected with the choice of adaptive cognitive, emotional and behavioural strategies. The features of connection between personality resources and the choice of coping strategies with life crisis can be taken as principles of practical recommendations, which can be used in the psychodiagnostics and in psychological consultation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.