“Русская Правда” и “Вопрошание Кирика” в Новгородской Кормчей 1282 г. (К характеристике языковой ситуации Древнего Новгорода)
The article contains a critical assessment of two alternative interpretations of the birchbark letter № 724, proposed by the editors (V. L. Yanin and A. A. Zalizniak, 1995, 1996) and by P. V. Petrukhin (2009). According to the former, the document, in which the author describes the difficulties of collecting tribute in the north-eastern periphery of the Novgorod Land, was written in 1161-1167, this dating being based on the identification of Zakharia and Andrei mentioned in the text with Novgorod posadnik Zakharia (1161-1167) and Suzdal’ prince Andrey Bogolyubsky. However, as Petrukhin has convincingly shown, the editors’ treatment of the conflict doesn’t match to the political circumstances of this period as they are known from the chronicles. According to Petrukhin, the document was written half a century later and reflects a routine conflict between local administrators rather than political confrontation of Novgorod and Suzdal’. In the present paper I argue that the editors’ interpretation allows modification in the light of Petrukhin’s criticism which doesn’t presuppose re-dating of the document and retains valid identification of Zakharia and Andrey with historical figures of the 1160-s as well as the linguistic analysis proposed by Zalizniak.
This is the publication of several Early Old Russian graffiti-inscriptions from the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod with paleographic, linguistic and historical commentary. It includes the revised text of a 13-lines-long prayer (graffito № 206); an inscription mentioning the Turkic name Sanbdusb; a new Glagolitic graffito from the Martirievskaia Porch; two inscriptions by church assistants mentioning their Slavic non-Christian names; a graffito dated 6614 (AD 1106/1107).
The 12th volume of the series contains the texts of Novgorod birch-bark documents N 916-1062 unearthed in the course of the excavations of 2001-2014, as well as those found in Staraya Russa (N 37-45). Most of the published documents originate from the Troicky excavation site and are dated to the 12th century. The core of the volume is formed by the documents from the estate Ж, where the concentration of birch-bark letters is significantly higher than at any other medieval Novgorod estate explored so far. Of special importance are two deposits: financial and economic records of Yakim (second half of the 12th century) comprising the largest set of document written by one hand, and correspondence of Luke, Ivan and Snovid (mid 12th century) containing fine examples of Early Rus’ merchants’ correspondence. The texts of the documents are published with comprehensive linguistic and historical commentary. The second part of the book contains corrections to the readings and interpretations of the birch-bark documents published in the previous volumes of the series as well as updating of some of tables of extra-stratigraphic dating published in the 10th volume. The volume also contains a linguistic index and a list of conventional dates of the published documents.
The combination of the names «Alexander and Isakios» in the final clause of the Preface to the Younger Recension of the First Novgorod Chronicle (N1) is explained as indirectly referring to the names of two prominent Novgorodians of late 14th – early 15th centuries – posadnik Alexander the Caeser and boyar Isak Okinfov. Genealogical ambitions of the competing boyar clans is regarded as a factor that caused the inclusion into the Novgorod Episcopal Chronicle of the angiographic tales of St. Alexander Nevsky and Mikhail Chernigovskij, as well as of the account of the Kulikovo battle. The compiling of the protograph of N1 is shown to have preceded that of the Novgorod-Sophia Compilation (protograph of the Sophia 1 and Novgorod 4 chronicles) and is presumably dated to the short period of Novgorod’s loyalty to Moscow in 1397 which also saw the culmination of the careers of Alexander the Caeser and Isak Okinfov.