Электризация политетрафторэтилена потоком электронов
This article analyzes and systematizes the theoretical approaches on sociological study of social interaction on the Internet labor market. Despite the rapid growth of atypical employment, including Internet employment, the theoretical study of this issue is currently insufficient and requires further research. The author discusses such foundations, which justify the specificity of the Internet labor market, as well as peculiarities of social interaction of the major actors, in the conditions of virtual communication. The method of this research lies in theoretical analysis of sociological theories of social interaction and comparison of the basic aspects of Internet employment. During the course of analysis of the Internet labor market, the author examines the system of interrelationship between the Internet employee and the hire. The use of several sociological approaches reveals various aspects of interaction on the Internet labor market from the moment of mutual search until the end of partnership.
The role of the selection operation—that stochastically discriminate between individuals based on their merit—on the updating of the probability model in univariate estimation of distribution algorithms is investigated. Necessary conditions for an operator to model selection in such a way that it can be used directly for updating the probability model are postulated. A family of such operators that generalize current model updating mechanisms is proposed. A thorough theoretical analysis of these operators is presented, including a study on operator equivalence. A comprehensive set of examples is provided aiming at illustrating key concepts, main results, and their relevance. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
This paper considers subjective beliefs in luck application to the theory of decision making under risk. Economic and psychological literature on this subject is analyzed in order to provide foundations and methodological guide for this application. It is also shown why ignoring these beliefs may result in significant biases for empirical analysis. Particularly it is shown that this ignoring may bias risk aversion parameters in individual utility function: risk averse person can be mistaken for risk loving one and vice versa. Finally, it is concluded that it is possible to apply beliefs in luck to decision making theory using concepts of subjective probabilities and stochastic dominance.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.