Некоторые аспекты развития младенца в связи с детско-родительскими отношениями
The main focus of this paper is the analysis of problems in the field of legislative regulation of the international abduction of children in Russia as well as of the perspectives and obstacles of the implementation of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Russia acceded to the Convention one year ago. Author aims to study the progress achieved during this period in the field of setting the mechanisms prescribed by the Convention and in bringing Russian legislation in the conformity with standards stipulated in the Convention.
The Chapter aims to analyse the most recent family-related jurisprudence of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC Committee), trying to identify evolution of child-rights concepts and issues in the family context and progress in the implementation of the respective provisions of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Chid (CRC). It highlights those issues where there is limited consensus, or no consensus achieved at all (yet), and which therefore require clarification. The Chapter is primarily based, apart from the academic sources and reports, on the analysis of the Committee’s interpretation of the provisions of the CRC particularly expressed in its Concluding Observations issued to State parties and its General Comments. The discussion is not focused on any specific countries or regions, though as a matter of fact some thematic issues are more relevant to some region[s] than others.
The Chapter consists of two parts. Part One, appearing in the 2019 issue of the Survey, includes discussion of the concept of family, the principle of non-discrimination, child’s evolving capacities, parental rights, child marriage, polygamy as far as it relates to children’s rights, and issues related to the status of child born through surrogacy. The main focus of Part Two, which will be in the 2020 issue of the Survey, covers issues of childhood statelessness, the child’s right to family environment, separation of children from the family, adoption, as well as the rights of children in the context of international migration. Thirty years of implementation of the Convention have demonstrated that family-related child rights issues not only continue to provoke hot debates but also evolve, often changing their forms or even transforming into a completely new issue, and, therefore, continue to be central to the work and jurisprudence of the CRC Committee.
The main focus of this paper is the relation between the realisation of the right of the child to express his/her views and democracy in Russia. With this in view, I will study the interconnection between the right to express the views and the right to participate. Further, I will give an overview of the specifics of democracy in Russia, how they influence political participation, and what could be done to prevent the further infantilisation of citizens in Russia. Finally, I will explore traditional perceptions with regard to children’s participation in Russia and the legal framework and practice of the implementation of the child’s right to social and political participation.
Importance Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.
Objective To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion.
Evidence Review Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss.
Findings Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries.
Conclusions and Relevance Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
Sergei Eisenstein's biography falls comfortably into the pattern of a conventional Bildungsroman. A bourgeois family, the tyranny of the father, the neurotic love affairs of the mother, a predetermination of life for the only son, then Revolution as a wheel of fortune and a chance of freedom that turned the formerly suppressed young man to the Avant-Garde artist, International successor and stepson of his terroroizing and terrorized motherland. This biography came into being after extensive research in Moscow, Berlin, Paris, New York and Los Angeles, and the author is the first to analyze Eisenstein's diaries - materials that were partly inaccessible in the past. The book is addressed to wide audience but could be useful for a specialist becaise of changing research optics and fighting the stereotypes. The book contains 96 illustrations: photos, portraits, caricatures, book covers and 30 rare movie posters.
The article is anylized the totalitarian power in the framework of the theory of narcissism. Narcissistic projections grand and insignificant "I" explain the specifics of ideological idealization of the people from one point of view, and terror as the implementation mechanism of devaluation, from a different point of view. It is demonstrated that the theory of narcissism can be heuristic to explain various phenomena of political and social life.
This publication is a continuation of the series of yearly Academic papers, published since 2006, by the "Baltic Practice" interdisciplinary research Center, in a form of structured and edited collection pf research papers of participants of the International summer school "Practice at the Baltic Sea" or simply "Baltic Practice".
ECCE 2018 VII International Conference Early Childhood Care and Education Proceedings
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.