Оценка вклада внешних причин смерти в изменение ожидаемой продолжительности жизни в России в 1990-2010 гг.
One of the main reasons of the low life expectancy in Russia, compared with developed countries, is a high mortality rate from external causes. The aim of this work is an assessment of the contribution of mortality from external causes and its various types in the change of the life expectancy in Russia by sex and age. The analysis is carried out by using the decomposition method proposed by Е.М. Andreev.
During the 1990-2010 external causes of death, along with diseases of the circulatory system, had the greatest contribution on the change of life expectancy. There are accidental poisoning by alcohol and assaults among leading external causes, which defined the dynamics of the life expectancy of both sexes during this time. There are intentional self-harm on 3rd place in male and transport accidents in female population It should be noted that, by the end of 2010, there was not a significant contribution of the external causes class of death in the increase of life expectancy - violent mortality, reducing the years of life expectancy in some periods, had restored them, but no more, in others. This suggests that in Russia there was the same high traumatic death rate in 2010 as in 1990. That means that in the almost twenty years mortality rate from external causes had not decreased. On the contrary, at the beginning of 1990s there was so significant increase in mortality from events of undetermined intent that compared to 1990 its negative contribution to the reduction in life expectancy is preserved in 2010. In other words, the death rate from this cause remains higher than in the beginning of the study period.
Given that the external causes of death play a significant role in the life expectancy indicator, the socio-demographic policy aimed at reduction of mortality from these causes would significantly reduce the backlog of Russian life expectancy from similar indicators of developed countries.
Having data on the contribution of causes of death to changes in life expectancy by sex and age, it is easier to specify priorities of the state policy.