Mode of Socio-Economic Development and Occupational Structure: The Case of Contemporary Russia
The given paper assumes the existence of a correlation between the occupational structure and the mode of social and economic development of a country. It is shown that the modern stage of development in advanced economies could be described by the post-industrial phase with (a) the specific proportions in the occupational structure (predominance of professional managers and technical experts); (b) particular nature of work and the corresponding extent of labor division according to specialization and qualification (highly skilled labor with broad spe- cialization and a new criterion of creativity included within qualifications). Within the certain historical framework these indicators, combined onto the entire scheme, produce the criteria to distinct different types of socio-economic development and arrange them in consistent order. The analysis of occupational structure of Russian population shows that the reforms of 1990s have facilitated the process of dein- dustrialization alongside with the growth of semi- and low-skilled jobs. According to the scheme, Russia seems to have reached the stage of the development that is similar to one of the 1950–1960s in the USA and the Europe.
This book provides a unique and timely analysis of the role of structural change in the economic development of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) with a consideration for the role of industry, and in particular manufacturing. The emergence of BRICS reflects an ongoing change in the international economic order. BRICS now account for very substantial part of global GDP, global manufactured value added and global manufactured exports. The book examines their economic experiences and structural change in BRICS over the past three decades, identifying both differences and commonalities, and deriving lessons for other industrializing countries. Section I contains comparative studies focusing on the commonalities and differences of the experiences of BRICS. Section II includes six country studies providing a more detailed analysis of the long-run experiences of each of the countries. Section III consists of a set of seven thematic studies focusing on specific topics such as global value chains, the role of transnational corporations in the food chain, the role of foreign versus domestic investment, the role of domestic versus foreign demand in economic growth the diffusion of environmental energy technology and the similarities, and the differences in industrial policies pursued in the five countries. The book contains a summary chapter that provides an integrated perspective of the various contributions from the point of view of poverty reduction and development. It asks, whether the patterns of structural change and industrial development that BRICS experienced, had an impact on poverty outcomes, and if so, what where the channels and the consequences?
Stimulation of innovation is a priority and a key factor for sustainable economic growth for the leading world economics during the last decade. Innovation became a dominant factor of social and economic evolvement that demands cutting of the period of innovation cycle; strengthening the impact of science on social and economic sphere; significance enhancement of non-economic factors; enlargement of public and corporative expenditures on research, technological and innovation development; globalization and integration of trans-national innovation processes. Global financial and economic crisis and its consequences brought to a head the necessity to speed up innovation at the level of companies, economic segments and national economics as a whole. In this respect development of integration processes and creation of common innovation strategies for grouping of states such as the EU and CIS, as well as for independent governments and companies becomes the crucial approach to enhance their competitiveness in the world economic area. The decision on development of Intergovernmental Target Programme for Innovation Cooperation of Commonwealth Independent States until 2020 was made by the Heads of the CIS Governments on November 14, 2008. The paper sets to analyze the document’s main goals and objectives, its content, the process of its development and possible implementation paths.
Since 2003, by decision of the Presidium of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, « Scientific Works of the Free Economic Society of Russia» are included in the «List of leading scientific journals and publications» produced in the Russian Federation in which basic scientific results of dissertations for the degree of doctor and candidate of sciences should be published.
The paper aims to highlight the major aspects of professional structure of employed population to point out its facilitation and discouraging nature in terms of modernization of Russia. Having in the scope of the analysis such realms as dynamic of manual and non-manual workers, qualified and non-qualified portion of the labor force, and educational and demographic features of occupational structure the paper generalizes the crucial outcomes derived from the studies had been accomplished by the author and his colleagues for the recent six years
The book describes consequnces of culture in Russia.
The article shows that in the USSR the incidence of venereal diseases was due to social and economic conditions of the "world of capitalism", including financial insecurity that caused women to prostitution, alcoholism and corrupting influence of erotic literature, art and cinema.Venereal diseases, as an inevitable companion of the "capitalist lifestyle", have gained not only social, but also openly expressed class character. Utilitarian-class approach to this area has kept almost the entire period of Soviet power, and in the 1990s founded a management principle to deal with the investigation (distribution of disposable syringes and personal contraception), and not the cause of the phenomenon was transferred into the practice of AIDS prevention.
Current empirical sociology features a limited set of indicators for associating individuals with certain social groups (classes or strata). European sociologists rely heavily on such an informative descriptor as occupation, which has become institutionalized and thus produces certain requirements of human, social and cultural resources for individuals to perform the underlying functions. However, this indicator manifests at least two substantial restrictions: first, it is natural that certain types of economic activity are historically less stable than the social classes with which they are associated; and second, Russian history demonstrates that in a developed society the system of occupations is consistent with its institutional set-up and system of values, which are transferred from generation to generation. In Russia specific occupations are associated with a certain character of labour yet not with particular status characteristics that should result from the corporate nature of professional associations. In fact, in that society there exists a unique form of social stratification, in which a hierarchy of social estates dominates elements of true class differentiation.