Time reference teased apart from Tense
A core issue in neurolinguistic research is to what extent the language problems that people with aphasia suffer from are specific for their brain damage. Possibly, the processes that require more cognitive resources for the healthy brain are vulnerable in aphasia. A way to tap into unimpaired language processing is to employ event-related potentials (ERPs). This study compares behavioral data from aphasic participants and ERP data from healthy participants on the time reference of verbs in Dutch.
In the paper I consider the causative constructions in Russian. I examine the use of tense and aspect in constructions with the verbs zastavit’ / zastavljat’ ‘make’ and pozvolit’ / pozvoljat’ ‘let, allow’. I also include the verb delat’ / sdelat ‘make’ in my analysis, though this verb has special syntactic and semantic characteristics.
The striking feature of the causative constructions with eventive subjects is that the tensed forms and temporal adverbs in these constructions do not obligatorily refer to the causing situation. The tensed forms and adverbials sometimes refer only to the caused situation.
I assume that it is the nature of events vs. participants that is responsible for these distinctions. Each dynamic event is associated with some result. I have shown that in some cases what the tense of the causative verb and temporal adverbials refer to is the result of the causing event, and not the causing event in the narrow sense.
This volume is a contribution to the typology of the category of aspect. Its aim is bringing forward new empirical data from languages not yet (widely) covered in typological aspectual investigations and to start or broaden their typological discussion. The articles in the paper are grouped in two sections. The first section is an account of aspectual systems of languages in four linguistic areas, including Europe, the Caucasus, Northeast Eurasia, and Africa and the Americas. The second section focusses on specific aspectual categories in individual languages or cross-linguistically.
Aphasia, a language impairment following stroke or brain trauma, is normally manifested behaviorally. Patients with the so-called non-fluent aphasia experience major difficulties at the level of morphosyntax (that is, producing and comprehending complex morphology and syntax). In contrast, patients with fluent aphasia predominantly show problems at the lexical-semantic level (that is, accessing word forms and lexical semantics). However, a few studies have proven that the language deficit in patients with aphasia is expressed not only in their linguistic performance, but also in specific electrophysiological responses.
In healthy individuals, incongruencies at different linguistic levels cause distinct event-related brain potentials (ERPs) registrated at the scalp. Syntactic incongruency elicits the ELAN and the P600 potentials, lexical-semantic incongruency elicits the N400 potential. Critically, in standard for those potentials linguistic contexts the lack of N400 was reported for fluent patients, while the lack of the ELAN and a reduced and delayed P600 – for non-fluent patients (Friederici et al. 1998, Wassenaar and Hagoort 2005). These findings support the idea of electrophysiological brain mapping on specific linguistic problems observed in different aphasia types.
The study was aimed at further investigating electrophysiological evidence for the suggestion that spoken sentence comprehension problems in individuals with fluent and non-fluent aphasia are caused, at least partly, by breakdowns at different levels of language processing – lexical-semantic and morphosyntactic respectively. To test this, we performed a study in healthy and aphasic Russian individuals using the method of event-related potentials (ERPs) that has become a powerful tool in addressing temporal aspects of language processing.
Recent studies have shown that reference to the past is more problematic in aphasic individuals than reference to the present (Anjarningsih et al. 2009; Bastiaanse, 2008). A fundamental issue concerns the extent to which past time reference difficulties are specific to aphasia. The present experiment was aimed at testing universal differences in processing present and past reference. We hypothesized that if past time reference problems are specific to aphasia, the same ERP effects should be observed while healthy individuals process verbs referring to the present and verbs referring to the past. However, if differences between present and past are more universal, non-similar ERP effects should be found.
Processing present and past time reference expressed through verbs is different in healthy individuals. Violation of the previously set time frame with a present tensed verb elicits a clear P600 response time locked to the critical verb. It means that present time reference is started being decoded and integrated into the preceding time context as soon as such it is presented. In contrast, there is no response time locked to the target verb when time frame is violated with a past tensed verb. This could be due to the fact that the proper decoding of time frame from verbal morphology does not happen right after a past tensed verb is presented. Instead, processing past time reference is delayed. These findings are in line with aphasiological data and suggest that problems with past in aphasia are based on more universal differences between processing present and past time reference.
After an introductory chapter that provides an overview to theoretical issues in tense, aspect, modality and evidentiality, this volume presents a variety of original contributions that are firmly empirically-grounded based on elicited or corpus data, while adopting different theoretical frameworks. Thus, some chapters rely on large diachronic corpora and provide new qualitative insight on the evolution of TAM systems through quantitative methods, while others carry out a collostructional analysis of past-tensed verbs using inferential statistics to explore the lexical grammar of verbs. A common goal is to uncover semantic regularities and variation in the TAM systems of the languages under study by taking a close look at context. Such a fine-grained approach contributes to our understanding of the TAM systems from a typological perspective. The focus on well-known Indo-European languages (e.g. French, German, English, Spanish) and also on less commonly studied languages (e.g. Hungarian, Estonian, Avar, Andi, Tagalog) provides a valuable cross-linguistic perspective.
Reference to a time frame in which an event takes place can be done by verb inflection. If the time frame (past, present, future) is set by a temporal adverb, the verb inflection should correspond (yesterday he walk. ed; today he walk. s). Temporal violations by simple verbs (single, lexical verbs inflected with tense) in the present tense and with present time reference elicit a P600 effect (Baggio, 2008; Dragoy, Stowe, Bos, & Bastiaanse, 2012). However tense does not always coincide with time reference; in languages such as Dutch and English, reference to the past can be established by using the present tense in the present perfect (e.g. 'he has eaten the cake'). The current study investigates whether the P600 effects described by Dragoy et al. and Baggio are caused by tense or time reference violations of the verb. In the context of a past adverb, ERP responses to auxiliaries in present tense with either congruent past time reference or incongruent non-past time reference were compared. The findings show that the P600 effect for violations of the temporal context is caused by the time reference of the complete verb form, rather than by the tense.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.