Relatively unstable attractors
There are different non-equivalent definitions of attractors in the theory of dynamical systems. The most common are two definitions: the maximal attractor and the Milnor attractor. The maximal attractor is by definition Lyapunov stable, but it is often in some ways excessive. The definition of Milnor attractor is more realistic from the physical point of view. The Milnor attractor can be Lyapunov unstable though. One of the central problems in the theory of dynamical systems is the question of how typical such a phenomenon is. This article is motivated by this question and contains new examples of so-called relatively unstable Milnor attractors. Recently I. Shilin has proved that these attractors are Lyapunov stable in the case of one-dimensional fiber under some additional assumptions. However, the question of their stability in the case of multidimensional fiber is still an open problem.
A one-dimensional confined nonlinear random walk is a tuple of N diffeomorphisms of the unit interval driven by a probabilistic Markov chain. For generic such walks, we obtain a geometric characterization of their ergodic stationary measures and prove that all of them have negative Lyapunov exponents. These measures appear to be probabilistic manifestations of physical measures for certain deterministic dynamical systems. These systems are step skew products over transitive subshifts of finite type (topological Markov chains) with the unit interval fiber.
For such skew products, we show there exist only finite collection of alternating attractors and repellers; we also give a sharp upper bound for their number. Each of them is a graph of a continuous map from the base to the fiber defined almost everywhere w.r.t. any ergodic Markov measure in the base. The orbits starting between the adjacent attractor and repeller tend to the attractor as t → +∞, and to the repeller as t → −∞. The attractors support ergodic hyperbolic physical measures.
Interval translation maps (ITMs) are a non-invertible generalization of interval exchange transformations (IETs). The dynamics of finite type ITMs is similar to IETs, while infinite type ITMs are known to exhibit new interesting effects. In this paper, we prove the finiteness conjecture for the ITMs of three intervals. Namely, the subset of ITMs of finite type contains an open, dense, and full Lebesgue measure subset of the space of ITMs of three intervals. For this, we show that any ITM of three intervals can be reduced either to a rotation or to a double rotation.
We consider the 3D Navier--Stokes systems with randomly rapidly oscillating right--hand sides. Under the assumption that the random functions are ergodic and statistically homogeneous in space variables or in time variables we prove that the trajectory attractors of these systems tend to the trajectory attractors of homogenized 3D Navier--Stokes systems whose right--hand sides are the average of the corresponding terms of the original systems. We do not assume that the Cauchy problem for the considered 3D Navier--Stokes systems is uniquely solvable.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.