О влиянии интегрированного планирования в цепи поставок на баланс коммерческих целей и операционных возможностей бизнеса
Author examines the impact of integrated planning and, spesifically, sales and operations planning (S&OP) on balancing and reconciliation of market requirements and operations capabilities. Two levels of planning – operational and tactical – are taken into consideration, and results of balancing attempts on each of them are compared. An outline of new approach to the evaluation of sales and operations planning impact on business economy is presented.
An integrated volume planning in the form of sales and operations planning is considered as a default universal method applicable to any business in any industry. Meanwhile, numerous researches on implementation of this process focus mainly on the downstream industries, such as automotive, FMCG etc, leaving the upstream extractive industries without due attention. But the latter industries also need a managerial mechanism allowing foreseeing and reacting to the expected imbalance between forecasted demand and resources available to fulfill it.
Thus, this article reviews necessity and specifics of sales and operations planning in gold mining holdings. The specifics include, firstly, the rules of the demand formation and prolonged supply deficit on the market, and secondly, the need to involve numerous business units of vertically integrated business structure into the planning process. Basing on the specifics revealed an aggregated model of planning process is proposed and main questions to deal with on each step of the process are articulated. The model proposed differs from the standard one by
(a) the stages sequence: particularly, new product and demand planning are proposed to be held in parallel to each other, and operations planning starts from the definition of mining volumes and only then procedes to the processing capabilities;
(b) planning objects on each stage: for instance, new product planning should focus on new gold ore minings, and demand planning – on forecasting of the price rather than demand volume;
(c) an additional planning contour on the level of business units, in line with the main process flow on the corporate level.
It has been long acknowledged that sales and operations planning is of a great importance and value for a business. Nonetheless, every year surveys and reports prove that only a half of all businesses are satisfied with the process and refer to it as successful and effective. This leads to a natural question: what exactly impacts the successful S&OP implementation and execution? To answer this question surveys issued by large consulting companies were reviewed and most frequently proposed success factors and recommendations were chosen. These factors were then divided into several groups basing on what they are impacting and to what extent implementation team can affect them. And, finally, some recommendations aiming at the improvement of S&OP effectiveness were proposed.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.