Крестовый поход Фридриха II: предательство крестоносной идеи?
This article is dedicated to conception of legitimacy of politic power in medieval Castile and later, in early modern Spanish Empire, reflected in the "Siete Partidas" of Alphonse the Sage, king of Castile and Leon (1252-1284) and in its gloss composed by Gr. Lopez - court lawyer and counsellor of the emperor Charles I (Charles V in a case of Holy Roman Empire). Jurists of XIII-th century construing the well-known legal maxim "Rex est imperator in regno suo" (Decretals "Per venerabilem", 1205, by Pope Innocent III) insisted on the supremacy of royal power not only in relation to imperial but also to papal power. Thereby a king, according to jurists of Alphonse the Wise, was represented as supreme sovereign of his kingdom either in secular and spiritual affairs. In the XVI-th century the court lawyer of a Spanish emperor, Gregorio Lopez, emphasized the supremacy of imperial power in the secular affairs and papal - in the spiritual. Yet he marked the possibility for the emperor to be deposed by the Roman people, who gave him his power and, by means of the renovated social contract, could recall it.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.