Неопределенность, власть и снижение качества товаров по мере «развития капитализма»
Modern capitalism favors values that undermine our face-to-face bonds with friends and family members. Focusing on the post-communist world, and comparing it to more 'developed' societies, this book reveals the mixed effects of capitalist culture on interpersonal relationships. While most observers blame the egoism and asocial behavior found in new free-market societies on their communist pasts, this work shows how relationships are also threatened by the profit orientations and personal ambition unleashed by economic development. Successful people in societies as diverse as China, Russia, and Eastern Germany adjust to the market economy at a social cost, relaxing their morals in order to obtain success and succumbing to increased material temptations to exploit relationships for their own financial and professional gain. The capitalist personality is internally troubled as a result of this "sellout," but these qualms subside as it devalues intimate qualitative bonds with others. This book also shows that post-communists are similarly individualized as people living in Western societies. Capitalism may indeed favor values of independence, creativity, and self-expressiveness, but it also rewards self-centeredness, consumerism, and the stripping down of morality. As is the case in the West, capitalist culture fosters an internally conflicted and self-centered personality in post-communist societies.
The paper considers the basic aspects of post-Keynesian economics. The author describes specific features of post-Keynesian approach to the comparative analysis of economic systems. This approach is based on the idea that uncertainty-reducing activity is one of the most significant characteristics of human behaviour. The application of this principle allows the post Keynesians to explain macroeconomic instability, in particular, business cycles and inflation.
The article analyzes methodological frameworks for research of the government phenomenon within the post-Keynesian economic theory. Special attention is given to the investigation of fundamental uncertainty in connection with institutional functions of a government. Primary aspects of neoclassical and neoaustrian critics of active government interference are examined.
The essay strives to explore the causes of the "absence of the people" (as a political category designating the agency of political action as something distinguishable from the demographic and ethnic readings of the "people") in the course of the post-communist transformations of Russia. By and large, these causes are portrayed as rooted in the specific version of capitalism that has taken hold of Russia as well as in the Soviet legacy of oppression it upholds, albeit in a modified form. The possibilities of the emergence of the people (in the aforesaid sense of the term) in the post-communist context of Russia are explored in the concluding section of the paper.
The article considers different variants of division of economic history into periods in a broad interdisciplinary context. Special attention has been paid to the influence of Enlightenment philosophy, evolutionary thinking , socialist ideology, human geography, agricultural economy, theories of economic growth, post-industrialism, world-system analysis. Author explicates heuristic significance of conceptions of such Russian theorists as A.Bogdanov, V. Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, N. Oganovsky for economic periodization of history and world-system approash.
According to interdisciplinary theory of architecture and sociology by A. Amin and N. Thrift, presented in their book Cities. Reimagining the Urban, the light sociality is the main way of individuals interaction in city space. In this context, consumption appears to be one of the basic forms of individuals self-expression on one hand, and on the other hand - one of the basic forms of urban communication. We deal with consumption in its general meaning - as a complex of all individuals consumption-related practices that are transparent in space of light sociality. Consumption practices become agents of light sociality, producing ambivalent encounters that emotionally affect individuals realizing those practices, and those who observe them. In this way consumption takes part in governmentality of the city spaces.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.