Соглашения в предпринимательском праве
The article in question considers the possibility of increasing the efficiency of bankruptcy procedures, as well as measures aimed at preventing bankruptcy by means of using different types of agreements concluded in the interests of the parties concerned. There has been laid out a classification of agreements - those used within the framework of measures leading to insolvency (bankruptcy) prevention, on the one hand, and those concluded in the process of restructuring debts. Examples from Russian judicial practice, same as other countries' legislation rules, are adduced.
Dans les conditions du développement constant du marché international, il est évident que, de plus en plus souvent, les cocontractants se heurtent aux législations d’autres États qui régissent les procédures d’insolvabilité de leur débiteur étranger. Une des plus importantes problématiques est le rang que la loi accorde à tel ou tel créancier. Nous avons donc analysé le classement des créanciers en examinant le droit russe, ainsi que la jurisprudence. Nos recherches ont montré que le droit russe fait une distinction entre les créanciers selon la date de naissance de leurs créances, ce qui induit une diversité de régimes. Comme en droit français, il existe un certain nombre de créanciers qui peuvent court-circuiter la procédure. Mais le cercle de ces créanciers extraordinaires ne correspond pas toujours à celui établi par le droit français, ce qui doit être pris en compte lors de la conclusion d’un contrat avec un cocontractant russe. Nous constatons que des dispositions particulières du droit russe concernant la satisfaction des créanciers garantis par une sûreté réelle spéciale permettent de défendre effectivement les intérêts de ces créanciers.
In article options of the Russian and foreign regulation of idea of collective access of creditors are given to partial withdrawal of property and future income of the debtor, and the conclusion about opportunity and need of introduction in the Russian Federation this mechanism of release of citizens from burden of debts is drawn.
The conclusion about need of research of the procedures preventing recognition of the debtor by the bankrupt is drawn, namely giving to the debtor opportunity within the law to receive release from debts, without allowing thus full realization of the property belonging to it, applied to individuals within studied system of insolvency.
Authors carried out the comparative analysis of legislations of England, by the USA, Canada and Russia on separate elements of use of legal tools.
In the conclusion authors it is offered to modify the payment plan in procedure for the consumer, allowing to avoid bankruptcy by use of the mechanism of collective access of creditors to partial withdrawal of property and the income of the debtor offered by foreign legislations that considerably would facilitate realization of tasks modern, the truth still unusual, competitive production concerning the citizens who aren't individual entrepreneurs in spite of the fact that we try to apply law action to hypothetical debtors and creditors.
Thus it is necessary to consider and effectively and expediently to use national, historical and social features of Russia.
The article considers features of carrying out a procedure of restructuring a debt of a citizen who is not an individual entrepreneur in bankruptcy case. Purpose: to study the rehabilitation nature of the structuring procedure based on distinguishing its stages. Methods: analytical and system methods, comparative and legal, technical and legal methods are used. Results: legal consequences of introducing the procedure of restructuring a debtor’s debt allow him to stabilize his financial position and to save his property to meet creditors’ requirements. Actions of a financial manager, first of all, are aimed at providing creditors with a right to take part in the case of the debtor’s bankruptcy. In their turn, creditors are recommended to act with due care and discretion to keep an opportunity to participate in settling the debtor’s legal destiny. The law has additional provisions protecting rights of creditors of the first and second order, and also creditors’ rights referring to the current liabilities, the debt to which shall be repaid before the approval of the debt restructuring plan. Conclusions: having introduced the institute of citizens’ debts restructuring, the Russian legislation legally enables debtors to pay debts during a long term and to keep their property at the same time. Giving an opportunity to choose a bankruptcy procedure applied to debtorsconsumers depending on their liabilities, income and size of debts, the legislator purposes to protect the debtor from loss of property and from psychological stress, thereby strengthening social and economic infrastructure.