For the discrete-time superreplication problem, a guaranteed deterministic formulation is proposed: the problem is to ensure the cheapest coverage of the contingent claim on an American option under all admissible scenarios. These scenarios are set by a priori defined compacts depending on the price history; the price increment at each moment of time must lie in the corresponding compact. The market is considered without trading constraints and transaction costs. The problem statement is game-theoretic in nature and leads directly to the Bellman–Isaacs equations of a special form under the assumption of no trading constraints. In the present study, we estimate the modulus of continuity of uniformly continuous solutions, including the Lipschitz case.
The article concentrates on the analysis of new tendencies in the theoretical foundations of historical sociology in the incoming new century. It focuses on the so called “third wave” in sociology which strangely remains unnoticed by historians. Meanwhile the representatives of the “third wave” rejected the fundamental principles of their teachers – creators of many famous concepts of modernization. The new generation in American sociology prefers to focus their studies on topics other than typology, searching for contingency, unpredictability, chains of events, path dependency etc. Here in conceptual approaches to the past social reality we find out deliberate and thought-out attempt to use transformed and formalized but essentially historical methods which are well articulated. The broader object of the research is the historical knowledge and the professional concepts about “subject and method”, the creation of interdisciplinary areas, mutual adoption and interventions.
Atomism and holism are considered as two opposite by implication but complementary approaches in the modern theory of complex self-organizing systems (theory of complexity). Atomism is connected with the consideration of nesting of complex structures in the world, their fractal organization, where we can reach elementary, further indivisible structural fragments on those basis complex scale invariant, self-similar spatio-temporal structures grow up. Besides, atomism is connected with the study of hierarchical organization of being and of elements, parts, subsystems out of which a whole structure is built. At the same time, it is shown in the article that the whole theory of complexity is penetrated by holism, and its holism is evolutionary by its character. Holism in evolution of complex self-organizing systems is coupled with the appearance of emergent properties of integral structural forms as well as with the discreteness, certain set of structures-attractors of evolution. The modern atomism can be brought into correlation with the notion of frames of perception in cognitive science. Proceeding from the system and evolutionary worldview, some arguments are put forward in favor of a hypothesis of the origins of the alphabetical writing in close connection with the studies of atoms in physical nature (Nidem, A.I. Kosyrev, V.G. Lysenko).
The achieved positions in the business elite system for the first time in the Russian post-Soviet context set the tasks of socio-economic self-determination before the second generation of owners of large businesses, their heirs. Will they simply be beneficiaries of property or business successors, will they be engaged in something different in the professional plan or will they prefer to spend? The answers to these questions will allow us to contour the research field of social mobility in these social strata.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/