Значимость доходов от рекламы среди других источников дохода радиостанций России
The article presents the results of the empirical research done by the author in 2010-2012. This research has revealed the importance of advertizing and not advertizing sources of the income of the Russian radio stations.
The article analyzes the place of classical music in the radio broadcasting system in modern Russia. The author presents some facts of the history of the national radio broadcasting associated with classical music. It is shown that classical music on the radio occupied an important place in the Soviet Union from the start broadcasting in the 1920s. After the collapse of the USSR during last 25 years, the total volume of classical music on the radio, expressed in hours increased. In modern Russia, four Russian radio stations, each with coverage 10% of the population and above, where there is classical music (radio station«Orpheus», «Radio Russia. Kultura», «Radio Russia», «Detskoye Radio»), the aggregate amount of classical music and gear about it is, estimated, up to 29 hours a day. On the other hand, in percentage terms there was a decrease volume of classical music in comparison with the 1980s to 18-20% in four programs of All-Union Radio to 2-2.5% in the fifty largest radio stations in modern Russian Federation. The reason - the almost twenty-fold growth in the number of radio stations, observed since the beginning of the 1990s, in which there is no place to classical music. Studies conducted in Moscow in 2013-2015, revealed that the value of the audience of classical music radio stations (in the example of radio «Orpheus» and «Radio Russia. Kultura») is relatively small. The number of people applying for each station at least once a day (Daily Reach), is just over 1%, during the week (Weekly Reach) - 3-4% in the last month (Monthly Reach) - about 4-6%. Over the past 10 years there has been growth of the audience of radio «Orpheus» in Moscow, which indicates an increase of Muscovites need to listen to classical music on the radio. The structure of both radios audience distinguished by a high percentage of listeners with higher education, the prevalence of people aged 40 years older, a high percentage of qualified specialists and managers. The audience of the radio «Orpheus» is composed mostly by listeners that have at least any level of music education.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.