Механизмы функциональной категоризации глаголов при метонимическом переносе в англоязычном художественном дискурсе
The article deals with the linguistic mechanism of functioning of verbal metonymy functioning in fictional discourse which is based on the functional categorization. In the metonymical using re-categorization of the verbs is taking place, that is, the change of their original system value. In some cases there is the actualization of the system categorial meaning while changing the values of the categorical boundaries of the situation denoted by the verb.
Students studying a foreign language find themselves involved into the dialogue between their own culture and that one of the target language. To perform successfully cross-cultural communication they need to develop cross-cultural competence. The task of a foreign language teacher is to help them acquire necessary skills. The article addresses the issue of using fictional discourse as a valuable source to teach cultural diversity as cultural patterns, concepts, symbols and stereotypes are acquired through texts of a particular culture, literary works playing a significant role among them. The focus is on certain comprehensive analysis techniques (linguo-stylistic, conceptual and culturological) of figures of speech, metonymy in particular, which can be applied to decode implicit cultural codes.
The paper analyzes the interaction of metaphor and metonymy, known as metaphtonymy, and its functioning in the context on the basis of verbs with semantics “to separate”. It discusses the main models of metaphtonimic projection: metaphor and metonymy; metonymy–metaphor–metonymy; metaphor based on metonymy (partially or fully); metonymy based on metaphors. The relevance of this study lies in the lack of study of cognitive values from the standpoint of metaphor and metonymy interaction in conditions of intersection of verbs close in meaning with semantics “to separate”. The novelty of this work lies, firstly, in the consideration of the mechanism of formation of the basic cognitive schemas of metaphtonymic meanings, in how the phrase can acquire a new or additional meaning depending on the location of words in the context, and secondly, it is the study of the mechanism of metaphtonymy formation in conditions of intersection of close verbs with the semantics “to separate”. Metaphors and metonymies are effective means of conceptualizing new elements of the modern worldview, since as concepts become more complex, the mechanisms of naming the surrounding reality become more complex too. Metaphtonymy is an example of such more complex structures. The basis of metaptonymy (the term is proposed by L. Goossens (1990)) is based on the principles of integration processes of metaphorical and metonymic blending. Such a complex unit can combine the properties of both metaphors and metonyms. More recent studies have provided more refined and systematic patterns of interaction between metaphor and metonymy (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza and Galera-‐Masegosa, 2011). However, our corpus of analysis suggests that further developments are needed in order to fully account for the complexities of verb with semantics of separation interpretation. Following J. Lakoff, L. Goossens, metaphor is considered as the projection of elements of different conceptual domains: the source domain and the target domain, metonymy is understood as a projection of adjacent elements of one conceptual domain [Lakoff, 1987; Gossens, 2002]. A cognitive approach to analysis of metaphor and metonymy can be considered as conceptual interaction in the complex and reach to metaphtonimic modeling. Also this approach reveals the interaction of metaphors and metonymy as a complex mechanism of the formation of meanings, as realized in context. The results of this study can contribute to the theory of metaphor, metonymy, secondary language nomination.
This article contains four parts. In the first section I investigate the relations between the transcendental and the mundane aspects of the facticity of the phenomenological reduction. The second section is dedicated to the examination of the transcendental situation of the reduction in terms of the «ongoing constitution» and the «indetermination of the transcendental life». In the third section I problematize the phenomenological research as an «enrichment of facticity». It helps me to provide in the fourth section the conclusion which concerns the facticity of the transcendental and the mundane modes of being.
Human communication is basically the exchange of information. How can this be realized? Each communicant proceeds from a subjective perception of an objective reality; however in order to exchange information relating to this reality communicants are obliged to coordinate their perceptions. Each of us entertains personal experiences based on individual impressions and associations. But communication presupposes the presence of a common experience and the possibility of the coordination of subjective perceptions. It is presumed that communicants share common experiences: this seems to be the natural premise of communication.
How is this possible? How can I be certain, for example, that my interlocutor understands the words in the same way I do? How can we correlate our understanding? It seems obvious that the necessary condition of communication is an agreement between the communicants. But how can this agreement be reached? Where is the initial point of the coordination of individual experience of different persons?
The present book deals with this and related questions. Special attention is given to the role of deixis in the process of communication and to the mechanisms of linguistic comprehension.