«Вынужден защищаться теми методами, какие мне достаются»
The article focuses on the methods used by the authorities to turn the citizens into silent minorities in Stalin’s period. One of them was the practice of sticking political labels on people. For explaining this phenomenon, the concept of stigma—a concept used to denote the ascribing to a person of traits that put him into a “shameful,” discriminated position—is used. By the end of Stalin’s period, such usage of political vocabulary became a tradition. In the postwar days, the legion of “Trotskyites,” “kulaks” and “saboteurs” was supplemented with new characters—“traitor peoples,” “cosmopolites” and “Banderovites” [followers of the 1940s Ukrainian nationalist leader Stepan Bandera].
In this paper, the problem of gender identity among e-workers is considered. The Internet market is a specific structure, where there is an opportunity to both preserve almost complete anonymity and arbitrary self-presentation. Due to existing prejudices of employers on the one hand and high competition with other Internet workers are forced to adjust their self-presentation, depending on the wishes of customers, in order to obtain more orders.
This paper examines the problem of stigmatization in the context of the formation of a new social and labor structure of society, a characteristic feature of which is the spread of atypical forms of employment and labor precarization. In our field of vision, there was a category of atypical workers like self-employed Internet workers and the problem of their stigmatization. In drawing conclusions, we will examine the differences between self-employed Internet workers and other atypical workers. The transfer of labor activity to the virtual space, the absence of obvious and established in the minds of society of philistine signs of labor activity in such an employee lead to stigmatization of those employed on the Internet (or Internet workers) and the problem of their stigmatization.
The paper is focused on changes in higher engineering education in Russia over the last decade. We assume that, as a result of technological and organizational changes in the markets young engineers are taught to work in, changes in education may be called for. The key change in the markets for engineers in Russia consists of the transition from planned to market economy, and thus the appearance of markets per se, and also in a shift away from a focus on the defense industry. To identify the possible changes and assess the current state of engineering education, we compare opinions of four target groups: university administrators, students, recent graduates, and employers.
Psychological predictors of academic achievements in university students were studied (N = 176). The aim of the study was to investigate how the Big Five personality traits contributed to different academic achievements. The Unified State Examination (USE) scores were used for evaluation of academic success prior to university admission and grade point average was used as a measure of current academic performance. Introversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism and Openness were shown to be important predictors of academic achievements in Russian university students. These results are only partially supported by the results of similar studies conducted in Western Europe and North America. Possible reasons of the above discrepancies are discussed. It is concluded that these discrepancies are due to country-specific differences in educational environment and requirements to student personality traits.