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Article

Are indigenous approaches to achieving influence in business organizations distinctive? A comparative study of Guanxi, Wasta, Jeitinho, Svyazi, and pulling strings

International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2012. Vol. 23. No. 2. P. 333-348.
Leong С., Torres C., Smith P., Lebedeva N., Achoui M., Budhwar P.

Managers in five nations rated scenarios exemplifying indigenous forms of informal influence whose cultural origins were concealed. Locally generated scenarios illustrated episodes of guanxi, wasta, jeitinho, svyazi and pulling strings. Local scenarios were judged representative of local influence processes but so too were some scenarios derived from other contexts. Furthermore, many scenarios were rated as more typical in non-local contexts. While these influence processes are found to be widely disseminated, they occur more frequently in contexts characterized by high self-enhancement values, low self-transcendence values and high endorsement of business corruptibility. Implications for a fuller understanding of local business practices are discussed.