Гражданская война политической теории
Upon analyzing the political processes occurring during the nineteenth-twentieth centuries, G.Musikhin posits that the popular idea about the supremacy of professional managers in politics over demagogues speculating with mass’ political aspirations conceals an attempt by the power holders to get rid of the axiological rationale for the political hegemony. He concludes that when the governmental policy is supported by the voters’ will rather than sovereign power per se, the ideological discourse becomes of fundamental importance since support is lent to someone who can present his ideological position as a majority’s goal. The debate within the political space is built around an ability to offer to the society a more attractive political (to be more precise, ideological) prospect rather than detailed mechanisms of how to govern society (that are largely universal).
This Handbook introduces scholars and students to the history, philosophy and evidence of global constitutionalism. Contributors provide their insights from law, politics, international relations, philosophy and history, drawing on diverse frameworks and empirical data sets to explore the idea of a global constitutional order. Across them all, however, is a recognition that the international order cannot be understood without an understanding of constitutional theory. In bringing together some of the leading contemporary scholars, this Handbook will define this field of inquiry for the next generation. This is the first Handbook in the emerging interdisciplinary field of global constitutionalism and offers contributions from experts in both law and political science. Through historical, legal, political and ethical analyses it provides unique coverage of distinct perspectives on global constitutionalism. The editors and their authors provide insights into the changing world order by emphasizing the constitutional-like qualities of international affairs, with particular attention paid to law, power and human rights. This unique and innovative Handbook will be the definitive state-of-the-art resource for the pioneers of global constitutionalism, as well as those readers interested in international law, international relations theory, comparative constitutionalism, history, public philosophy, political sociology and political theory alike.
The paper provides a summary of Hannah Arendt's thinking on political reciprocity based on the analysis of her general view of politics and its historical fate in the European tradition. According to Arendt, political reciprocity is profoundly different in nature from the types of reciprocity which are proper for other spheres of human life (family, domestic, religious, communitarian, economic). Its specificity is due to the specificity of the field of politics and to the nature of the link that connects men in a community that can be referred to as political. Political community is not the same thing as a large family, an ethnic or religious community or a market society. Politics (in the strict sense of the term) is based on the pluralities of men who form together a shared public world, and the question of political reciprocity is not raised from the problem of man, his nature and his goodness, but from the problem of the world and its reality.
The concept of the political is a central and yet one of the most controversial categories in the political thought. Despite the long history of reflection about the concept of the political, today there is still a lack of consensus not only about the substantive content of this notion, but also about its very right to exist. The purpose of this article is to clarify the epistemological opportunities of political theory in relation to the concept of the political.
If political theory is part of positive political science and is an autonomous form of knowledge, independent from philosophy, it must also include a special way of thinking about the political. The article gives a brief description of the subject field of political theory, describes the specificity of its view on social and political phenomena, and justifies the statement that the political manifests itself in the form of an event.
By virtue of the immanent bias of political thought, it is impossible to know about a political event beyond its borders. Thus, according to the author, political theory should focus on pre-political situations, in which political events can occur. To identify such situations, it is necessary to shift the focus from the “friend—enemy” formula to the “human—non-human” dichotomy. A political event happens when the fundamental norms of humanity are problematized at the collective level and a space opens up where people involved in the event are forced to take one or the other side. The boundary between human and non-human in a political event is erased, which determines the existential nature of the confrontation between friends and enemies.
Assessing the nature, factors and alternatives of contemporary social change is a key challenge for contemporary social science requiring methodological approaches fit to interpret the radical transformations of the institutions and the habitat, of the individual’s mentality and modes of behavior. The way development has been perceived exclusively within the capitalist Western-oriented model is being reconsidered, and the principal methodological approaches of qualitative research in the field are being scrutinized. The critical characteristics of contemporary development are clearly manifested in the political sphere: the emergence of new institutions and new actors transform political spaces and reframe the conventional understanding of politics. The authors test the possibilities of achieving a methodological synthesis in studying political change and propose approaches to overcome the “methodological nationalism” which has so far dominated political science. This revision can be achieved, it is argued, by adequately using the understated cognitive potential of identity studies and by introducing into the research framework, alongside institutions and collective actors, the spatial and the individual, personal dimensions of political development. The edited volume presents the results of the research project funded by the Russian Foundation for the Humanities № 12-03-00306a “The methodology of analyzing political and sociocultural development and forecasting social and political change in the modernization context”.
Incrementalism is a theory of the budgetary process which offers a realistic view at the state budgeting by taking into account the influence of political power on budget. This article presents the main provisions of incrementalism and the comments of its critics. The theory is evaluated as a basis for future researches as well.
In this volume, based on a symposium organized by the Aleksanteri Institute, six scholars representing different fields of social research are presenting their points of view on the "Stalinism phenomenon".
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.