HEALTH RISK FACTORS OF EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE VEHICLES: AN UP-TO-DATE STATUS OF THE PROBLEM
Introduction. Motor transport with diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines (ICE), whose emissions are an urgent medical and environmental problem, is one of the main sources of atmospheric air pollution.
The aim of the study is to identify, based on the results of a systematic review, priority types of pollutants in emissions from vehicles with internal combustion engines in order to determine a general strategy to reduce the associated adverse effects on public health.
Methods. The search for relevant publications was carried out by keywords placed in databases and information systems, including such electronic databases as RSCI, CyberLeninka, Scopus, WoS. Scientific papers published in the period 2000-2021 were selected for analysis. According to the results of the targeted search, 103 full-text publications were identified, 59 of them fully meet the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review.
Results. It is shown that the emissions of internal combustion engines into the atmosphere are a complex agglomeration of gases, vapors and suspended particles. The chemicals present in the emissions disrupt the oxygen transport function, inhibiting tissue respiration, cause irritation of the mucous membranes, exhibit mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, contribute to the occurrence of acid rain and global warming. The biological effect of particles suspended in the air largely depends on their size. It was found that an increase in the number of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns in the air is associated with the risk of endothelial inflammation, thrombosis, increased cell permeability, DNA methylation. It is shown that an increase in the concentration of particles in the air with a size of less than 2.5 microns for every 5 micrograms/m3 leads to an increase in mortality by 7%. At the same time, the risks of additional deaths from cardiovascular diseases when exposed to these particles are 2 times higher compared to larger particles (PM10).
Conclusion. Emissions from cars with diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines are a significant risk factor for public health. An effective strategy to prevent their adverse effects should be aimed at replacing heavy hydrocarbon motor fuels with compressed gas using hydrogen elements and electric motors for vehicles.