Унификация внедоговорных обязательств в праве Европейского Союза
Article offered to readers attention of the associate professor of the private international law department, the faculty of laws of State University - the Higher School of Economics (HSE), Ph.D. in Law I.V. Get`man-Pavlova (e-mail: email@example.com) and the post-graduate student of the same faculty E.A. Kruty (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) is devoted to urgent problem of private international law (PIL). In 2000-2007 special autonomous legislative acts on private international law were adopted in seven foreign states (Azerbaijan, Estonia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Macedonia and Turkey). All of these laws represent an autonomous codification of private international law, namely, a special complex legal act that is devoted to the issues of determination of the law which is applicable to private legal relations and to the issues of the international civil procedure. Adoption of the given codifications confirms a persistent modern tendency of the development of PIL - consideration of PIL as a branch of law and a branch of legislation. A special attention has to be paid to the designated tendency in calling the legislative acts on PIL not laws but codes. Three of the seven codifications (Belgian, Bulgarian and Macedonian) are called codes. It allows ascertaining that the status of the legislation in the sphere of PIL raises. All investigated laws regulate a similar, practically identical circle of issues; there is a specific system of the generally accepted terminology everywhere. However, this diversity of national laws and orders remains, and all of these legal acts differ from each other, showing the peculiarities of national approaches.
Международное частное право, Международный гражданский процесс, кодификация, кодекс, Закон, коллизионные нормы, применимое право, компетентная юрисдикция, private international law (PIL), the international civil procedure, Codification, the code, the law, conflict rules, an applicable law, competent jurisdiction
The article is devoted to military service of K.P. von Kaufman, famous Russian statesman of the second half of the 19th century, during the first stage of his career in 1840s–1850s. This period of his biography had not been studied in details until now. Meanwhile, just during his service in the Caucasus and participation in the Crimean War, Kaufman gained his first experience of relations with oriental peoples and states as the soldier and diplomat. That experience was very important for him later, when he had became a Governor-General of Turkestan Region (1867–1882). Valuable source of information on the “Caucasian” period of life and activity of K.P. von Kaufman are the memoirs of his contemporaries who served with him. In contrast to official documents (such as orders, service records, etc.) these notes contains details on Kaufman’s service, and much information about his talents and abilities, the personal features reflected during his “conquer and organization” of Turkestan.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/