«Южный парк», мультипликационные войны и современная политическая философия
Евразийство, идеократия, политическая философия, Форма правления
The report features the experience of mastering the norms of political correctness in the English language by HSE students by means of creative assignments.
This research is an elaboration in the field of theoretical social institutions. The subject of research is jural principle of sociality (social culture) and the institutions created in accordance with the jural principle.
The goal of the project is to develop an institutional libertarian-juridical theory, which would allow for distinguishing between institutions (as well as laws, legal rules, cultures and civilizations) of the jural type (jus = Recht, droit, derecho, diritto etc.) or potestarian type (potestas = power, might), including statehood, i.e. the institutions aimed at the formation and exercise of public authority.
The research methodology draws upon libertarian socio-anthropological paradigm: it means that the jural principle of social culture consists in presuming that every person belongs solely to himself (self-ownership, the principle of personal autonomy), which implies a prohibition against aggressive violence. The libertarian concept of human rights can also be derived from this paradigm: everyone has the rights only on themselves and on their own. Furthermore, this paradigm means that social cultures may follow either the jural or the potestarian principle, hence the differentiation between jural and potestarian types of culture. This distinction enables juridical libertarianism as a research program to overcome the limits of the normative theory of law, as well as normative theory of Rechtsstaat, and to study instead jural institutions directly within the environment of social cultures and their interconnections with potestarian institutions.
The research is grounded in modern institutionalism, as opposed to traditional legist formalism which confined itself to official legal texts. The institutional approach reveals the real social rules (or systems of rules, institutions) and allows for a grounded perspective on the relationship between jural and potestarian regulation, as well as the real functions of institutions of public authority, as opposed to declared ones.
The typology of social cultures set out in our research enables one to distinguish civilizational types dominated by the jural principle (e.g. Greco-Roman antiquity, capitalism) from those dominated by the potestarian principle, such as that of despotism and communism, and also to identify mixed civilizational types, in which the jural and the potestarian principles clash with one another (e.g. the Western and Eastern types of feudalism, the Western and Eastern types of social capitalism). It is worth noting that such mixed civilizations still preserve a archetypal cultural code – either jural or potestarian. This prevents profound changes within a particular civilization: such changes can occur sooner or later but only insofar as the civilization collapses. In its place a new civilization may emerge, which may belong to the opposite type. Consequently, as long as the Russian civilization was historically based on the potestarian principle, every change occurred only within the limits of this particular socio-cultural type, and it is incapable of transforming into a civilization of the jural type.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
Economy is embedded in ongoing concrete social networks, and economic processes are increasingly international in character. Three interrelated processes are crucial for setting the frame of analysis for this book: globalisation, development of post-industrial societies, and transformation of European post-socialist countries. Within this framework the main issues will be as follows: economies in transition - reliable patterns, imitation, local adaptation, cultural embeddedness; multiplicity of markets - commodification of life, new markets in old societies; economic behavior - households, micro-enterprises, local and global influences; and, contemporary polities i.e. states, the European Union and global corporations. The stress will be placed on actors, relations and institutions as the driving forces of the above described processes. The authors of this collection analyze, based on their empirical material, very interesting socio-economic issues. These are: ethical consumption from the perspective of the moral economy and its connection to political institutions in Europe (and particularly in Hungary); the cultural context of consumption, both in the case of social networks in Bangladesh and of counterfeited goods on the Russian market; the new and old, individual and organizational actors in transition economies, for instance in Poland and Croatia; the new approach to corporations as global actors, stressing their social responsibility; the dynamics of managerial practices in the example of Russia; the influence of EU funds and policies on the Polish SMEs market; the cultural embeddedness of economic behavior, in the case of Poles working in the Scottish market and of entrepreneurs in Damascus; the retirement policy in the fast aging societies of Spain and Poland; and, the emergence of the new markets, like that of health services, in Russia and that of the property market in Eastern and Central Europe.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.