Особенности спроса на услуги городского транспорта при сильной социальной защите больших групп населения(на примере Санкт–Петербурга)
Free education, public heath care and social benefits that had been a fact of life for decades in the Soviet Union have now become an object of deep nostalgia for many people, especially the elderly. Social services enveloped Soviet society, controlling the activity and thoughts of people for more than 70 years. The state and its various agents carried out this double-faced task of care and control at all levels of social life, moving gradually from tough and selective schemes of social security and insurance to the “bright future” of a communist welfare state. The development of Soviet social policy followed the ideological formulae common in many industrial countries during the modernisation period. Our aim in this study was to use the forms taken by everyday life and the modern subject in the Soviet Union as a way to call into question our own certainty about how these phenomena work. Social care and social control practices were carried out by different professional and quasi-professional assistants—educators in youth and children’s cultural centres and clubs, activists in women’s organisations and trade unions, teachers at schools and educators in kindergartens and orphanages, nurses and visiting nurses at polyclinics, and officials of domestic affairs departments. The population viewed the government and its agents as the source of both well-being and trouble. This article focuses on social policy during the first decades of the “Republic of Labour” when the ideology of care and control was established in accordance with the demands of industrial growth, formulating particular definitions of normality and deviance. In this quest for normality, classifications of worthy and unworthy behaviour and activities were established, and the rhetoric distinguishing “us” and “them” intensified. We show how egalitarian social and democratic principles existed alongside conservative stratification guidelines without contradiction, and how the rhetoric of social care varied dramatically from its practical implementation.
Despite over 30 years of worldwide reforms in many directions to increase efficiency, public transport markets present a variety of arrangements regarding operations, control and ownership that are amenable to improvement. This workshop will examine the contextual economic, political, cultural and social factors behind these many different cases that can be observed around the world. Through a better understanding of such factors it will examine the competition and ownership options for regulated public transport markets, taking full account of local contextual factors. This will include examination of methods for improving performance without major competition and ownership changes, for example by improved institutional design (both top-down and bottom-up), the development of trusting partnerships, the promotion of negotiated contracts and the introduction of optimal operating rules.
The book is prepared by a group of leading russian and finnish experts on the field of labor law and social security law, and includes research of the most important problems and issues of the protection of social and labor rights in Russia and Finland. The book is also published in Finnish. The book will be usefull for academics, lecterures, magisters, post-graduate students, students of law faculties, trade union activists, stuff of the personnel daepartments and all interested in comparative labor law.
On the basis of general provisions of state and law theory analyzes the scientific judgments about allocation principles within individual institutions and sub-institutions social security law. The article elaborates on the basic principles of social care Institute of contemporary Russia's social security law.
Textbook reflects the current level of development of social security law , the judicial practice of its implementation, the issues in dispute to be solved. Particular attention is paid to issues related to financing the social security system, ensuring its stability and warranty. The manual includes a section on regulatory frameworks social security abroad. Structure and volume of the material presented in the textbook , the curriculum meets the National Research University "Higher School of Economics" and takes into account the latest provisions of the legislation in this area. Its main objective - to help students in mastering the basic theoretical knowledge of the issues of social security law and the ability to navigate the complex legislation in the industry. At the end of chapters are questions for self . The manual is prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Federal state educational standard of higher education and the third generation includes the entire list of topics needed to build the required competencies and skills. Designed for bachelors, masters and PhD students of higher educational institutions , practitioners and all those interested in issues of social security law.