Существование как отчуждение в экзистенциальной теологии Пауля Тиллиха
In the article one of the major aspects of ontology of Paul Tillich (1886- 1965), an outstanding German-American philosopher and theologian, the founder of current neo-liberal theology, philosopher of culture, - the problem of existence as an alienation is analyzed. The concept of alienation, which is dominant in the world, is described by the majority of trends of modern philosophy and Christian anthropology to both of which Tillich belonged. The majority of religious thinkers of XX century (not only Christian thinkers) have apprehended philosophical concept of alienation as a correlate of theological concepts of God-abandonness, creatureness and sinfulness.
This paper is devoted to the historico-philosophical analysis of existential-analytical investigation developed by Martin Heidegger. In this research we demonstrate that Heidegger in his investigation aims at a purpose of the conceptual transformation of ontology in its doctrinal and methodological aspects. That is explicated as an attempt of the essentially new comprehension of the traditional problems of West-European metaphysics.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics – the ontological evidence for God's existence or ontological argument. The idea of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyses argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology, which is adequate for knowledge of the systems including free activity of the person. These are the problems constantly facing modern social sciences; therefore, despite the historical and philosophical direction of the book, the problems that are relevant to modern social and human sciences are under continued discussion. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
15.01.07 Философские вопросы и методология психологии
15.01.11 Современное состояние и перспективы развития психологии
15.21.51 Психология личности
The project addresses anomie and alienation theories as a means of studying the state of contemporary societies. The two theories appeared and developed separately, but with the institutionalization of psychological anomie (anomia) as well as with the extension of the notion of alienation the two theories became not only close to each other but also mixed with each other. Still, there hasn’t been enough theoretical contribution to the separation of the two concepts (Shoham 1982, Olsen 1965), and none on the separation within the alienation theory and the psychological anomie, which is claimed to be crucial for both theoretical and empirical works. The project offers a model of conceptualization of the concepts and applies it using ESS 2010.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics - the ontological argument better known as the ontological argument of evidence for God's existence. The ontological argument is a logical nonsense for classical the subject - object relation; it becomes the natural phenomenon in the reflexive systems including cognitive activity of the subject as an element of the functioning and existence. The concept of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyze argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology in the course of the Western philosophy development. From the standpoint of the received results, the methodological problems of economic science related to the alienation and also the reflexive paradoxes encountered within sociology of knowledge are analyzed in the last part of the book. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.