Национальные меньшинства Австрии: эволюция конституционно-правового регулирования и защита их прав в Конституционном суде
The article examines the key features of the constitutional and legal status of the autochthonous national minorities of Austria and the approaches of the constitutional control body to their protection. The author attempts to identify the positive and negative characteristics of the current Austrian system of protection of ethnic communities with the aim of possible implementation of approaches for the Russian constitutional and legal regulation of this sphere. The purpose of the study is to identify the features of the legal regulation of the situation of national minorities in the Republic of Austria and the protection of their rights through the constitutional justice bodies for the possible implementation of the most successful approaches in the domestic legal system. Tasks: to study and analyze the fundamental legal acts of the Republic of Austria on national minorities; to characterize and develop the constitutional and legal status of autochthonous ethnic groups, to identify the peculiarities and differences of their situation; studying the practice of the constitutional control body and determining the impact of its decisions on constitutional and legal regulation. Methods: dialectical, epistemological, philosophical, formal-logical, system-structural, comparative-legal, historical-legal. Conclusion: hardly all Austrian ethnic groups can be recognized as equal legal status due to the historical specifics of their settlement and residence. Nevertheless, it seems that a unified approach of the legislator and a more active application of universalization by the constitutional control body in this matter would help to exclude such segregation. The Austrian experience could also be of interest to Russia (mainly for autochthonous ethnic communities) both in the issue of their definition, and in the practice of recognizing national-territorial entities, using the language in public and private spheres, and installing bilingual designations.