Paper deals with particular features of incomplete urbanization in Dar es Salam, Tanzania. It studies the lives of people, who just moved in to the big city, as well as the lives of the second or third-generation immigrants from countryside and rural districts. In the first part of the work these features are treated with the use of anthropological and historical methodology; in the second part attention is drawn to respondents’ perception of life in megapolis compared to those in their native villages. Features of incomplete urbanization include: creation of informal settlements, formation of living community and city space by means of its inhabitants (just as in the villages); employment in the informal sectors of economy, small-scale commerce or small-scale services requiring no education or highly specialized skills (for example, growing and selling of fruits and vegetables, just as in the villages); establishing of mutual help groups (instead of relatives’ and villagers’ help, now absent); use of the social commitment power instead of legal power, importance of family and person’s own reputation; appeal to moral authority of group leaders instead of calling the police in case of conflicts; patrolling and securing the territory of informal settlements by units of people’s militia at night (in coordination with state police). It is clear, that these practices moved to the big city hand in hand with migrants from rural regions. On the one hand, incomplete urbanization and its trends can be treated as a result of insufficient state support of the poor, but on the other hand, in some ways it continues and even develops social relations, which existed before colonization and then were additionally enhanced in course of nation-building and implementation of Julius Nyerere’s "ujamaa" concept after Tanzania gained independence.
Empirical research conducted in 5 Russian local communities in 2011-2015 discovered asymmetric principal-agent relations between regional and municipal authorities in which regional authorities have all the necessary resources for effective control over the urban elites and interference in the local political process. However, despite the increasing centralization, the regional-local government relationships remain variable. The active presence or absence of the governor and his team in urban politics largely depends on personal relations between the heads of regional and municipal administrations, the resource base of the territory, the severity of conflicts and/or problems that threaten its stable development. Spectrum of relations between the regional and local elites varies from quite constructive and relatively conflict-free, to rather tense and open confrontation, while the interference of the regional authorities in the activities of the local government bodies differs from episodic to permanent.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.