Некоторые оценки эффективности дополнительного профессионального образования в России (2001–2008)
The main focus of this article is analyzing the peculiarities and dynamics of socio-economic inequality in modern Russia. Examined are the changes in Russian people’s attitudes towards this multilateral and painful social issue, which are dictated by shifts both in objective reality and the way it is perceived by the general population. Analysis is based on data from «Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey» (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that uneven distribution of income and accumulated wealth in post-Soviet Russia has become ever so dramatic. Meanwhile, like in most other countries of the world, a huge and constantly increasing and accelerating concentration of capital in the hands of a slim segment of the richest people is evident. These processes decrease the eff ectiveness of previously accepted criteria and indexes of socio-economic inequality, which leads to the need for fi ner adjustment of said instruments. Those who suff ered the most from a series of economic crises and stagnation, occurring throughout the period between 2008 and 2016, are those who belong to quite prosperous segments of the population, those which form the backbone of the middle-class. A decrease in the amount of wealthy households during the last crisis was accompanied by an increase in the amount of poor families, which became one of the reasons for an increase in the population’s dissatisfaction with their material status. Dramatic socioeconomic inequality remains the most prominent factor which forms inequality of opportunity when it comes to various population groups’ access to education, health-care and other social resources. However, unlike the 1990’s, when negative attitudes towards private property and rich people were dominant in Russian society, today we see a more moderate tolerance level towards socio-economic inequality.
Major changes have happened in the Russian educational system in recent decades. The number of people who continue studying after finishing secondary school has increased significantly, as well as the number of universities and students. The key predictor of educational trajectory is the socioeconomic status (SES) of the students’ families. A lot of research has been devoted to studying family influence on educational trajectory choice. This article considers the main theoretical approaches to studying the relationship between trajectory choice and student SES in the context of higher education expansion. In addition, empirical studies are analyzed, to test the implementation of the described theories in various education systems.
Macro- and micro-theories are identified to explain the reasons for the reproduction of inequality at state and individual levels respectively. Macro-theories describe conditions when inequality persists despite increasing access to education and tell us how to overcome inequalities. These theories are used for comparing students’ cohorts and identifying changes in accessibility to a certain level of education over time. Micro-theories study educational transitions at the individual level and consider the reasons for choosing a trajectory in terms of students’ opportunities, preferences, and limitations. The current review of both empirical and theoretical studies will be useful for future research in this area to make predictions and determine a valid model of the relationship between SES and the choice of educational trajectory in Russia.
As a result of a number of social and demographic changes in recent years, the amount of available places at the level of higher education has significantly increased, and at the same time, the number of applicants for them has decreased. Theoretically, this could lead to an increase in the equality of access to higher education for different social classes. In the paper, using Russian data for the first time, the theory of effectively maintained inequality is tested. According to this theory, the increase in the number of places at a specific level of education may not lead to a decrease in socioeconomic inequality on this level. This is because inequality will be maintained at the level due to the qualitative difference in the received education. Using data from the longitudinal project, “Trajectories in Education and Profession,” two postsecondary educational choices are examined: (1) the choice between vocational and higher education and (2) the choice between going to a selective or non-selective university. Following R. Boudon’s theory, the effect of the family’s socio-economic background on the choice of an educational trajectory is estimated directly and indirectly (through academic achievement). The results show that after finishing school, the direct effect of the socio-economic background is more important for moving to a more academic trajectory than the family’s efforts to improve academic performance. Even with high educational achievements, students from families with low social status make a choice in favour of vocational education rather than a university. When choosing between selective and non-selective higher education institutions, the impact of the family through academic achievement weakens even more. The characteristics of the family directly affect the choice of the trajectory becoming a key predictor.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.