Интеллектуальная нищета высоких стремлений
The author analyzes problems and prospects of moral and civic education in Russian schools and considers two different approaches with regard to «value-unfree» or moral education: propaganda, on the one hand, and «open» education - on the other. The first approach involves a simple solution: mass education, integration of verbalized values in school curricula, imposition of unified standards, «spiritual» patterns and imperatives. This paradigm reduces the cultural diversity of society and the differential value orientations and simplifies representations of the structure of the system of values and mechanisms of its formation. The question of educational technologies and methods that would take into account individual experience of students stays behind the scenes. «Spirituality» is identified with religion. The second, «experience-based» approach is grounded on the idea of mediated formation of values - i. e. the formation is a natural process and values are formed through practical activities, experience, thoughts and reflections. The author emphasizes the need to shift the focus from the total forms of moral education to a more dynamic and individualized approach to educational activities.