Программная классификация расходов федерального бюджета
The article deals with the correlation of the current classification of the budgets costs with the task to pass to the program structure of the Federal budget costs; analysis of the composition of the costs codes of some state programs and program projects. The author has considered the components of the costs codes of the budgets, showed ways of correcting the definition principles of both a number of sections, subdivisions, target costs and of the principals of the budget means. The article makes proposals of the budget costs classification to be reorganized, so that the program costs structure be eflected.
Since 2014 the expenditure side of the Federal budget and some budgets of Russian regions have based on the state programs. This fact has generated a lot of debate and disagreement among researchers. Practice of foreign countries confirms the validity and feasibility of this format of state bodies performance management. However, the performance planning and monitoring of public authorities has not only important advantages but also some uncontrollable negative consequences that are called "performance paradoxes".
In this research authors developed methodology of "performance paradoxes" identification, which can occur during the implementation of state programs. Thus, an attempt was made to move from conceptual notions of "paradoxes of performance" to the instrumental level of study, which allows to provide a systematic approach to the identification and prevention of side effects arising from the performance evaluation system, documents of program planning.
Upon review of the three state programs of the Perm region some significant “performance paradoxes" are determined. These performance paradoxes are explained by the complexity and diversity of policy, and redundancy of performance indicators assigned to the programme interventions.
The article describes clusters as a mechanism for economic growth and innovation in the region. The author considers the approach to the definition of a cluster as normative legal acts, and in the scientific literature, the advantages of cluster development are defined, and the cumulative effects of interaction between organizations within clusters are described. The information on the development institutions of clusters is presented on the example St. Petersburg.
Russian government policy on small and medium-sized enterprises initially focuses on copying and introducing western institutions and, secondly, on permanent increasing the number of organizations and forms of SMEs’ support. After several structural reorganizations government support for SMEs widely covered federal, regional and municipal levels of management. But even with the backbone of more than 30 billion rubles worth budgetary infusions SMEs support system has been unable to provide favorable conditions for the development of this sector of economy. The reasons for this should be sought in the potential and the actual place of SMEs in the current structure of the Russian economy.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.