От критики к аналитике: коммодификация жизненно важных благ как актуальная исследовательская проблема в новой экономической социологии
Counterfeiting has always been a problem. Counterfeiting is a term used to describe a range of illicit activities linked with trademark infringement. The paper we present focuses on victims to counterfeiting – owners of registered trademarks. The paradox is that they partly contribute to the market expansion of counterfeited goods. This happens because the modern production is subject to sign-consumption. In the Russian economy owners of registered trademarks are said not to be very active in combating with counterfeiting. All companies we interviewed may be divided into four groups: aggressive fighters, lazy fighters, and selfish-non-fighters and discouraged non-fighters. The key feature of all companies’ behavior is that they make great efforts to hide the information about fakes from all external observers. They are too scared of any negative information that can harm their brands and break the market status quo.
During 1998-2010 the National Research University – Higher School of Economics (Moscow) has been surveying the results of activities of most leasing market operators in Russia, including all the largest ones. The results of the scheduled annual analysis undertaken by us to survey the activities of leasing companies in the Russia indicate that the year 2010 was successful for the leasing business. According to the Leaseurope, and author’s data, Russia occupies the 5th place in Europe after Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, French. In practice many Russian leasing companies have managed not only to copy but also successfully to adapt the experience of the countries with developed leasing industries. Despite the growth in new business, account must be taken of the quality of the leasing portfolio. It turned out that it just got a little better as compared with the previous year. The analysis showed that cost of loans taken for financing leasing operations, as well as the cost of the funds of a leasing company, the funds of the lessee, the use of factoring, promissory notes/exchange bills, securities and other instruments, depends on a variety of factors, including: financial independence of leasing companies; the risks associated with the sale of a leasing product; the security for the transaction; the terms of depreciation of leased property, the terms of credit contract and of leasing contracts; the currency of the leasing transaction; whether the funds are borrowed on the domestic or on the international capital market; the schemes for carrying out a leasing operation, etc. With each year there the number of Russian leasing companies that can obtain financing directly from foreign banks grows. There is a growth in the volume of credit operations with the involvement of the national agencies for insurance of export-import operations, e.g. from Germany, Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, the USA and other countries. Securitisation of leasing assets held at the junction of four financial tools – lending, leasing, factoring, securities issues. This innovative mechanism that requires subtle scientific and practical configuration achieves remarkable economic performance update, modernisation and re-equipment of enterprises. The author has developed a system of securitisation leasing asset pricing which is feasible through a set of equations that balance the interests of the participants. The article also examined the status of concentration of leasing market, its regional and sectoral structures.