Развитие форм общественного контроля над акционерными обществами
An increase in the number of shareholders which is typical for public joint-stock companies leads to the fact that the direct management of the assets of a jointstock company is concentrated in the company’s top management (top managers) who, not being the owner of its capital, manages it as its own capital. Such inconsistency of the management system in a joint-stock company gives rise to the need to develop external control over it on the part of all other participants in the modern market represented by participants in the stock market, the state, and the public (citizens). The main forms of control on the part of the stock market are the groups of relations regarding the purchase and sale of shares leading both to a change in the composition of shareholders and to a change in the company’s
management. The most significant part of the relations of the stock market leading to the change of the top management of the company at the will of the market participants relates to the market of corporate control. State control in the sphere of the functioning of joint-stock companies covers not only the regulation and control of their activities but also includes the direct presence of the state as a shareholder of a number of companies important for the country’s economy. However, the controlling participation of the state is strongly opposed by those who defend the relationship of private ownership of capital. Civil control over the activities of joint-stock companies is based on the broad development of the media and on the growth of public consciousness in the direction of protecting the environment from the negative impact of capital relations on it. The deep reason for the development of various forms of public control over the activities of joint-stock companies is the transformation of modern society into a society of shareholders, i.e. into a society in which the majority of citizens are not just direct or indirect shareholders who receive their income from share capital but also persons interested in making this capital socially useful.