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## Local Matching Indicators for Transport Problems with Concave Costs

In this paper, we introduce a class of local indicators that enable us to compute efficiently optimal transport plans associated with arbitrary weighted distributions of N demands and M supplies in R in the case where the cost function is concave. Indeed, whereas this problem can be solved linearly when the cost is a convex function of the distance on the line (or more generally when the cost matrix between points is a Monge matrix), to the best of our knowledge no simple solution has been proposed for concave costs, which are more realistic in many applications, especially in economic situations. The problem we consider may be unbalanced, in the sense that the weight of all the supplies might be larger than the weight of all the demands. We show how to use the local indicators hierarchically to solve the transportation problem for concave costs on the line.

In order to implement the human-centric manufacturing and sustainability concepts in industry, an important effort should be done in order to model working conditions for human operators and improve them. Several studies have been conducted for mass production assembly lines where short cycle times make the work content highly repetitive. However, the case of low-volume production with long cycle times and different impacts on human operators has been rarely considered in the literature. In this paper, we develop a model to take into account the associated ergonomic risks in assembly lines with long cycle times. An optimization method is also developed in order to schedule tasks and assign the required tasks to a set of human operators taking into account the existing ergonomic risks.

We analyze two algorithms for approximating the general optimal transport (OT) distance between two discrete distributions of size $n$, up to accuracy $\varepsilon$. For the first algorithm, which is based on the celebrated Sinkhorn’s algorithm, we prove the complexity bound $\widetilde{O}\left(\frac{n^2}{\varepsilon^2}\right)$ arithmetic operations ($\widetilde{O}$ hides polylogarithmic factors $(\ln n)^c$, $c>0$). For the second one, which is based on our novel Adaptive Primal-Dual Accelerated Gradient Descent (APDAGD) algorithm, we prove the complexity bound $\widetilde{O}\left(\min\left\{\frac{n^{9/4}}{\varepsilon}, \frac{n^{2}}{\varepsilon^2} \right\}\right)$ arithmetic operations. Both bounds have better dependence on $\varepsilon$ than the state-of-the-art result given by $\widetilde{O}\left(\frac{n^2}{\varepsilon^3}\right)$. Our second algorithm not only has better dependence on $\varepsilon$ in the complexity bound, but also is not specific to entropic regularization and can solve the OT problem with different regularizers.

We consider the space P(X) of probability measures on arbitrary Radon space X endowed with a transportation cost J(μ, ν) generated by a nonnegative continuous cost function. For a probability distribution on P(X) we formulate a notion of average with respect to this transportation cost, called here the *Fréchet barycenter*, prove a version of the law of large numbers for Fréchet barycenters, and discuss the structure of P(X) related to the transportation cost J.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

In this paper we consider the two-stage stochastic linear assignment (2SSLA) problem, which is a stochastic extension of the classical deterministic linear assignment problem. For each agent and job, the decision maker has to decide whether to make assignments now or to wait for the second stage. Assignments of agents and jobs, for which decisions are delayed to the second stage, are then completed based on the scenario realized. We discuss two greedy approximation algorithms from the literature and derive a simple necessary optimality condition that generalizes the key ideas behind both of these approaches. Subsequently, based on this result we design a new greedy approximation method. Theoretical observations and the results of computational experiments are also presented.

The assembly process is extremely complex for aircraft and its management requires to address numerous optimization problems related to the assignment of tasks to workstations, staffing problem for each workstation and finally the assignment of tasks to operators at each workstation. This paper treats the latter problem dealing with the assignment of tasks to operators under ergonomic constraints. The problem of optimal tasks scheduling in aircraft assembly line is modelled as Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP). The objective of this research is to assign tasks to operators and to find an optimal schedule of task processing under economic and ergonomic constraints. Two different models to solve this problem are presented and evaluated on an industrial case study.

Volume 80 is assigned to the 2018 International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2018)

In this paper some of the task assignment methods and approaches are examined. The analysis of the algorithms considered is showing their strengths and weaknesses. Also, the ways of further research are presented, which aims to develop a methodology for task assignment in project management area.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.