Критика марксизма как прототеория культурного капитала и «нового класса»: теория интеллигенции Яна Вацлава Махайского
The article is devoted to theory of intelligentsia of Jan Wacław Machajski (1866-1926) and the history of its transfer and reception in modern Western social theories. The main thesis of the article is that Machajski’s theory directly influenced shaping of several Western social theories in the second half of the XXth century – theories of new class and postindustrial society. The article includes a review of modern research literature, devoted to Machajski, a brief biographical sketch and explication of main thesis of his theory of intelligentsia. A history of reception and criticism of Machajski’s theory is analysed in the Soviet and postsoviet period, in the result of which this theory was practically excluded from Russian conceptual and theoretical context. In the article the history of the transfer of this theory to the Western context is analysed, in which Max Nomad played the decisive part. As the result of this transfer these ideas became known and acknowledged by a range of social theorists of the middle of the XXth century, for example, by Daniel Bell and Alvin Gouldner. In the concluding part of the work it is shown that Machajski’s ideas who considered access to education and knowledge as a certain type of capital, can be systematically recognized in later theories, in particular, in the theory of cultural capital by Pierre Bourdieu and in the theory of society of singularities by Andreas Reckwitz.