Universal fluctuations and squeezing in a generalized Dicke model near the superradiant phase transition
In view of recent proposals for the realization of anisotropic light-matter interaction in such platforms as (i) nonstationary or inductively and capacitively coupled superconducting qubits, (ii) atoms in crossed fields, and (iii) semiconductor heterostructures with spin-orbital interaction, the concept of a generalized Dicke model, where coupling strengths of rotating wave and counter-rotating wave terms are unequal, has attracted great interest. For this model we study photon fluctuations in the critical region of normal-to-superradiant phase transition when both the temperatures and numbers of two-level systems are finite. In this case, the superradiant quantum phase transition is changed to a fluctuational region in the phase diagram that reveals two types of critical behaviors. These are regimes of Dicke model (with discrete Z2 symmetry), and that of anti-Tavis-Cummings and Tavis-Cummings U(1) models. We show that squeezing parameters of photon condensate in these regimes show distinct temperature scalings. Besides, relative fluctuations of a photon number take universal values. We also find a temperature scale below which one approaches a zero-temperature quantum phase transition where quantum fluctuations dominate. Our effective theory is provided by a non-Goldstone functional for condensate mode and by Majorana representation of Pauli operators. We also discuss the Bethe ansatz solution for integrable U(1) limits.