Motion planning strategies in human control of non-rigid objects with internal degrees of freedom
The paper deals with modeling of human-like reaching movements in dynamic environments. A simple but not trivial example of reaching in a dynamic environment is the rest-to-rest manipulation of a multi-mass flexible object with the elimination of residual vibrations. Two approaches to the prediction of reaching movements are formulated in position and force actuation settings. In the first approach, either the position of the hand or the hand force is specified by the lowest order polynomial satisfying the boundary conditions of the reaching task. The second approach is based on the minimization of either the hand jerk or the hand force-change, with taking into account the dynamics of the flexible object. To verify the resulting four mathematical models, an experiment on the manipulation of a ten-masses flexible object of low stiffness is conducted. The experimental results show that the second approach gives a significantly better prediction of human movements, with the minimum hand force-change model having a slight but consistent edge over the minimum hand jerk one.