Группирование электронов в оптимальном режиме карсинотрода
Electron bunching processes in a carcinotrode (backward_wave oscillator with self_modulation of electron emission) operating in the high_efficiency regime determined previously are investigated. The possibility of obtaining an efficiency of about 80% is explained from the physical viewpoint.
IVEC was originally created in 2000 by merging the U.S. Power Tubes Conferences and the European Space Agency TWTA Workshops. Now a fully international conference, IVEC is held every other year in the U.S., and in Europe and Asia alternately every fourth year. After the successful and enjoyable meeting in Paris, France in May, IVEC 2014 will return to its beautiful U.S. location in the city of Monterey.
Formulae for statement carelessness measure calculation, conceptions, classification system with uneven description are substantiated. Conceptions of the search completeness and accuracy in the uneven event are specified and calculating formulae for their valuation are derived. Relationship between description carelessness and search efficiency is formed. Construction method of the curve of the search efficiency pareto-optimum parameters is proposed. Classification system autocompatibility conception and their relationship with description carelessness measure are given.
In the present paper we have hypothesized an explanation for the fact that the evaluation
of the social impact of law is modeled predominantly by the economic efficiency concept.
Considering the early stages of the concept’s development, we try to make it more
intelligible to the European lawyers.
There is by now a large literature arguing that auctions with a variety of after-market interactions may not yield an efficient allocation of the objects for sale, especially when the bidders impose strong negative externalities upon each other. In this note, we argue that these inefficiencies can be avoided by asking bidders prior to the auction to submit any publicly observable payment they would like to make. These payments, so-called flexible entry fees, do not affect the allocation decision of the auctioneer. We show that auctions with flexible entry fees have a fully revealing equilibrium where bidders signal their type before the auction itself takes place.
The main purpose of this monograph is to identify the key factors of risk man- agement efficiency of firm, whose management is able to increase the investment attractiveness of the business in general, as well as the formation of an effective or- ganizational risk management model that allows, on the one hand - to provide reliable protection for companies against unexpected losses, on the other hand - to make a risk management tool for the creation of corporate value. This monograph presents the organization of risk management in accordance with the latest regulatory require- ments. In the monograph authors provide a developed methods for evaluating the effectiveness of existing mechanisms of risk management, based on a representative theoretical review of the scientific literature of leading researchers in the field of risk management and internal control. In addition, an algorithm for evaluating the econom- ic and investment efficiency of the risk management is given, that takes into account the existing methods of performance evaluation, as well as recommendations on the organization of internal compliance as a tool ensuring the consistency of individual and corporate interests of the company. Most of the conclusions and positions pre- sented in the book, confirmed by empirical calculations on the example of Russian and international companies.
The book contains the results of studies to assess the effectiveness of corporate risk management. This monograph is intended for students, teachers and scientists, researchers, and professionals operating in the field of risk management.
Usually marketization is associated with the commercialization as the desire for recovery of the profit. This means replacing the educational functions to the provision of services, with all the unfortunate consequences. However, such an approach is superficial and emotional. The orientation of higher education on the client is very appropriate. Moreover, it is able to put a lot into place.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.