COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in low- and middle-income countries
Widespread acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines is crucial for achieving sufficient immunization coverage to end the global pandemic, yet few studies have investigated COVID-19 vaccination attitudes in lower-income countries, where large-scale vaccination is just beginning. We analyze COVID-19 vaccine acceptance across 15 survey samples covering 10 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia, Africa and South America, Russia (an upper-middle-income country) and the United States, including a total of 44,260 individuals. We find considerably higher willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine in our LMIC samples (mean 80.3%; median 78%; range 30.1 percentage points) compared with the United States (mean 64.6%) and Russia (mean 30.4%). Vaccine acceptance in LMICs is primarily explained by an interest in personal protection against COVID-19, while concern about side effects is the most common reason for hesitancy. Health workers are the most trusted sources of guidance about COVID-19 vaccines. Evidence from this sample of LMICs suggests that prioritizing vaccine distribution to the Global South should yield high returns in advancing global immunization coverage. Vaccination campaigns should focus on translating the high levels of stated acceptance into actual uptake. Messages highlighting vaccine efficacy and safety, delivered by healthcare workers, could be effective for addressing any remaining hesitancy in the analyzed LMICs.
One of the first academic comparative studies of the educational impact of the pandemic, the book explains how the interruption of in person instruction and the variable efficacy of alternative forms of education caused learning loss and disengagement with learning, especially for disadvantaged students. Other direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic diminished the ability of families to support children and youth in their education. For students, as well as for teachers and school staff, these included the economic shocks experienced by families, in some cases leading to food insecurity and in many more causing stress and anxiety and impacting mental health. Opportunity to learn was also diminished by the shocks and trauma experienced by those with a close relative infected by the virus, and by the constrains on learning resulting from students having to learn at home, where the demands of schoolwork had to be negotiated with other family necessities, often sharing limited space. Furthermore, the prolonged stress caused by the uncertainty over the resolution of the pandemic and resulting from the knowledge that anyone could be infected and potentially lose their lives, created a traumatic context for many that undermined the necessary focus and dedication to schoolwork. These individual effects were reinforced by community effects, particularly for students and teachers living in communities where the multifaceted negative impacts resulting from the pandemic were pervasive.
The article systematizes the problems of the Russian public procurement system associated with the illegal actions of its participants. Despite the constant reform of the public procurement sector, it is still prone to fraud and corruption. Participants' dishonest behavior is especially evident in the crisis situation associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. After overcoming the consequences of the pandemic, the situation will be improved by strengthening public control by citizens and civil society institutions.
Infectious diseases are a significant danger for every country in the world. Active spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) today is another striking example of the issue. States have long been making joint efforts to achieve effective results in combating infectious diseases through the adoption legal and various other measures. The paper gains an insight in the theoretical issue of the key developments that occurred in the field of study throughout history. It improves understanding of importance of main goals that states pursued while developing international law. In order to achieve such results, the main international legal documents adopted throughout history in this area, and their contents are analyzed. Throughout history three main historical phases identified. Two very opposite approaches on combating infectious diseases were found by the author in legal documents. The analysis indicates that currently international cooperation, the involvement of states in joint activities to combat diseases in the framework of international organizations has increased. However, highly criticized approach based on Westphalian principles is still underlines international regulations on combating infectious diseases. The methods employed in the paper include inductive and deductive analyses, as well as historical and teleological method. The work is the starting point for further research in this area.
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to find ways out of the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic when implementing national projects based on a comparative analysis of measures taken in different countries. Design/Methodology/Approach: the authors of the study rely on the methods of comparative legal studies, interpretation of legal concepts and regulatory legal acts. The authors proceed from the premise that the nature of regulatory goals and problems associated with COVID-19 in different countries also implies the possibility of using solutions that are similar in their content. Findings: The authors conclude that large-scale economic and social projects are being implemented in many countries, while the success of such projects is determined not only and not so much by the amount of financing of the projected activities, but by the creation of an institutional and legal framework. The coronavirus pandemic has significantly slowed down the implementation of national projects in all countries of the world, however, the problems arisen are solved in different countries in different ways. The most common measure to support national projects is extra funding, which could be directed to participating companies or consumers of their products. However, solutions aimed at creating favorable conditions for doing business, as is done, for example, in the UK, deserve the highest praise. Practical Implications: The results could be implemented into the practice of the Russian Federation and other countries in order to resume the implementation of national projects in the context of overcoming the crisis situation caused by the spread of COVID-19. Originality/Value: The main contribution of this article is to conduct a comparative legal analysis of the regulation of national projects and measures to overcome the crisis situation, implemented in Russia, the USA, Great Britain and European countries.
This timely volume documents the immediate, global impacts of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on teaching and learning in higher education. Focusing on student and faculty experiences of online and distance education, the text provides reflections on novel initiatives, unexpected challenges, and lessons learned.
Responding to the urgent need to better understand online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, this book investigates how the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) impacted students, faculty, and staff experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown. Chapters initially look at the challenges faced by universities and educators in their attempts to overcome the practical difficulties involved in developing effective online programming and pedagogy. The text then builds on these insights to highlight student experiences and consider issues of social connection and inequality. Finally, the volume looks forward to asking what lessons COVID-19 can offer for the future development of online and distance learning in higher education.
This engaging volume will benefit researchers, academics, and educators with an interest in online teaching and eLearning, curriculum design, and more, specifically those involved with the digitalization of higher education. The text will also support further discussion and reflection around pedagogical transformation, international teaching and learning, and educational policy more broadly.
Based on the data of a representative survey of residents of St. Petersburg (N = 1226), the article investigates changes in employment faced by the citizens during the peak of restrictive measures and regime of self-isolation, as well as the relationship of these changes with psychological well-being. The research shows that the overwhelming majority of respondents experienced negative changes associated with the format of work and its conditions.
Self-employed and individual entrepreneurs have been the most affected category in terms of financial losses, while women in — terms of psychological well-being. Contrary to international assessments, changes in employment of the younger generation cannot be interpreted as predominantly negative. The article argues that the loss of job and deterioration of the financial situation contribute significantly to the worsening of psychological well-being. Other kinds of change, including the shift to teleworking, are not associated with the dynamics of indicators of psychological well-being.
A subjective assessment of the changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic as threatening is the second factor in the worsening of the mental state in the acute period of the pandemic and the beginning of the implementation of pandemic-related restrictive measures.
The purpose of this chapter is to examine changes in the well-being of Russian consumers, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Building upon both micromarketing and macromarketing perspectives, the authors identify key topics in studies of consumer behavior during the world-wide spread of a novel and deadly coronavirus, and examine changes in behaviors in relation to individual and community well-being in Russia. These topics are further examined using data collected during the outbreak of COVID-19 to compare changes in individual and community well-being across in Russia, Brazil, China, India and South Africa. Finally, the authors examine how Russian consumers adjust their behaviors during lockdown. The results shed light on changes to consumer behavior patterns caused by global pandemic in a transitional economy, with implications for health-and-well-being management in Russia and potentially other transitional economies distressed by future health crises.
This chapter focuses on the important area of integration of the Greater Eurasia project: defense and security in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The chapter examines in detail the defense and security dimension of Greater Eurasia through the example of military cooperation between China and Russia as the main driver of Greater Eurasia. It is concluded that by 2016, an "average" level of military interaction had been achieved in Russian-Chinese relations, which opens up opportunities for further integration. However, given that relations between the two great powers are built on a solid foundation of national interests and sovereign equality, further military integration of Russia and China is being questioned. The pandemic, in the context of growing contradictions with official Washington, has intensified the more self-confident and assertive behavior of official Beijing in the foreign arena.
Data management and analysis is one of the fastest growing and most challenging areas of research and development in both academia and industry. Numerous types of applications and services have been studied and re-examined in this field resulting in this edited volume which includes chapters on effective approaches for dealing with the inherent complexity within data management and analysis. This edited volume contains practical case studies, and will appeal to students, researchers and professionals working in data management and analysis in the business, education, healthcare, and bioinformatics areas.
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine