Two-Layer Mutiple Trapping Model for Universal Current Transients in Molecularly Doped Polymers
The mechanism of charge transport in molecularly doped polymers has been the subject of much discussion over the years. In this paper, data obtained from a new experimental variant of the time-of-flight (TOF) technique, called TOF1a, are compared to the predictions of a two-layer multiple trapping model (MTM) with an exponential distribution of traps. In the recently introduced TOF1a experimental variant, the charge generation depth is varied continuously, from surface generation to bulk generation, by varying the energy of the electron-beam excitation source. This produces systematic changes in the shape of the current transient that can be compared to predictions of the two-layer MTM. In the model, one additional assumption is added to the homogeneous MTM, namely: that there exists a surface region, on the order of a micrometer thick, in which the trap distribution is identical to the bulk, but has a higher trap concentration. We find that the characteristic experimental features of an initial spike, a flat plateau, and an anomalously broad tail, as well as the sometimes observed cusp or decreasing current occurring near the transit time, can all be described by such a two-layer model; that is, they can arise as a result of carriers delayed by a trap-rich surface layer. We find that we can semiquantitatively fit current transient data over the whole time range of the experiment, but only by using theoretical parameters that lie in a narrow range, the extent of which we quantify here.