Бразилия – каждый сам за себя. Особенности социальной политики во время коронакризиса
The article is focused on the Brazil’s social policy before and during the first and the second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors highlight the specific features of the country’s social policy and at the social impact of the crisis, particularly looking at the example of the Brazilian criminal groups` participation in the fight against the pandemic. The article provides an overview of the measures adopted by the Brazilian Government to mitigate the negative consequences of COVID-19 in the social sphere. It is concluded that the effectiveness of the Brazilian response to the coronacrisis is low due to the structural imbalances accumulated before the outbreak of the pandemic.
The article consists of three parts. The first analyses the main features of the country’s social policy before the outbreak of COVID-19. It reveals that Brazil’s social policy has already been struggling before the pandemic due to the effects of the 2015-2016 crisis. The second part of the article focuses on the anti-crisis measures adopted by the Brazilian Government during the pandemic and problems with implementing the anti-coronavirus plan in the social sphere. Examples of successful and failed experiences in the fight against the pandemic in Brazilian states are provided. The third part is devoted to the positions of the criminal groups on the issue of combating the pandemic, especially in the favelas that are the most vulnerable parts of the country. The specificity of Brazilian experience in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic relates to the growing influence of such non-state actors.
The authors come to a conclusion that Brazilian response to the pandemic cannot be considered successful, despite numerous governmental initiatives to mitigate the crisis. The problems and shortcomings of the previous development do not allow Brazil to make an instant breakthrough in the field of social policy with emergency measures. The success of the proposed measures depends on the Brazilian Government`s ability to address the structural problems in the social sphere.