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## On Necessary Conditions of Finite-Valued Random Variable Algebraic Approximation

We consider transformations of random variables on finite sets by algebraic operations. A system of operations is said to be approximation complete if any random variable may be approximated with arbitrary precision by applying the given operations to mutually independent identically distributed random variables whose distributions have no zero components. We establish some necessary conditions for a function system to be approximation complete and construct examples of approximation incomplete systems.

The paper considers some new applications of the clone method in Computational Social Choice

This paper deals with different properties of polynomials in random elements: bounds for characteristic functionals of polynomials, a stochastic generalization of the Vinogradov mean value theorem, the characterization problem, and bounds for probabilities to hit the balls. These results cover the cases when the random elements take values in finite as well as infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces.

This paper argues that modeling granularity and approximation (Krifka 2007; Lewis 1979) is crucial for capturing important aspects of the distribution and interpretation of adjectives and their modifiers, modulo certain differences between modified adjectives and numerals. In addition, the paper presents supporting experimental results with minimizers like *slightly* and maximizers like *completely*.

Consideration was given to the omega square Cramer–von Mises tests intended to verify the goodness hypothesis about the distribution of the observed multivariable random vector with the distribution in the unit cube. The limit distribution of the statistics of these tests was defined by the distribution of an infinite quadratic form in the normal random variables. For convenience of computing its distribution, the residue of the quadratic form was approximated by a finite linear combination of the χ2-distributed random variables. Formulas for determination of the residue parameters were established.

This book constitutes revised selected papers from the First International Workshop on Machine Learning, Optimization, and Big Data, MOD 2015, held in Taormina, Sicily, Italy, in July 2015. The 32 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 73 submissions. They deal with the algorithms, methods and theories relevant in data science, optimization and machine learning.

The increasing of the efficiency of technological modes of steel products manufacturing requires simulation of metal forming during hot deformation. To obtain correct results, one should set the correct initial and boundary conditions, including the mechanical properties of materials, which represent the dependence of the stress-strain and strain rate at maintained temperature. In the experiments one must reveal the mechanical properties and constants of the steels according to strain rate, predetermined temperature and chemical composition. So, the type of test is usually dependents on the technology process, which simulation will be using the obtained information. One can identify four main types of tests used in the hot deformation: compression, tension, torsion and rupture tests. The simplest tests are considered as uniaxial compression or tension tests. The results of these tests are the curves of <<flow stress -- strain>>. The present study describes an approximation method of test results for uniaxial compression of cylindrical samples made from AISI304 steel. During this work a mathematical model of the <<stress -- strain>> relation has been described. An algorithm that determines the necessary numerical coefficients for this model was developed. As a result, the equation of the material state, which is characterized by the stress relation on the strain, strain rate (0.15, 0.5, 1.5, 5 and 15 inverse seconds) and temperature (800, 950, 1080 and 1200 degree Celsius) was found. Also the approximation comparison with the experimental results were obtained.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.