Компьютерный поворот в философии XXI в. (Размышления над книгой Йоханнеса Ленхарда «Сюрпризы вычислений. Философия компьютерных симуляций»)
In 2019, a new book by Lenhard was published. Lenhard attempts to separate computer simulations from classical mathematical modeling. Having structured the material accumulated over the years of research into three parts, Lenhard correctly, without starting the construction of revolutionary metaphysical concepts, takes the reader through the new world of the philosophy of computer simulations. In the first part, the author proves the thesis that computer simulations are a completely new, previously unknown, type of mathematical modeling. The second part focuses on the conceptual epistemic transformations of mathematical modeling as applied to computer simulations. Particular importance is attached to the verification methods used in scientific experiments: verification and validation. In the third part, Lenhard, questioning the purely scientific rational way of knowing, tries to grope for the contours of new methods that will be due to the use of computer simulations in scientific research practice. In this article, we will analyze the problem areas that Lenhard identifies in his book as the most important for understanding the philosophical essence of computer simulations.