ХУДОЖЕСТВЕННЫЙ ОБРАЗ КАК КОГНИТИВНЫЙ ФЕНОМЕН
The article is an attempt to disclose the terms «image» and «literary image» from the point of view of humanities (linguistics, psychology, cognitive studies, literary studies). It analyses different approaches to defining these terms, aiming at a cognitive definition of «image». The article contains an overview of the analysis of the term in psychology: psychoanalytic approach, the theory of reflection, cognitive psychology. It describes both the semiotic and cognitive features of «image» and the ways of their representation in the literary text of the novel «The Master of Petersburg» by J. Coetzee. An image is viewed as an iconic sign incorporated in the structure of a concept, being an element of its figurative-and-associative layer. As a category of mind it contributes to cognition of reality, creating a specific model of reality which connects concrete perceptible characteristics of an object or phenomenon with the subjectivity of the author’s individual mind. After the exploration of the linguistic and linguistic-cognitive approaches, a literary image is considered as a verbal sign representing the author’s worldview within the literary text. It is highlighted that while interpreting images it is important to pay attention to both the textual representation of the author’s intention and the readers’ perception of them.
The book describes the concepts of culture and language in the work of the austrian writer Franz Kafka.
The effect of conceptual flexibility involves inclusion of attributes that are irrelevant to the formed category in the concept and their further handling where required. The previous studies show that the conceptual flexibility effect arises while performing feature inference tasks and doesn’t arise while performing classification tasks. In the last case attention becomes too focused on one attribute. In the study the hypothesis according to which the conceptual flexibility effect may arise while performing classification tasks is tested on a sample of students (N=60). As this take place objects with attributes that are functionally connected and potentially related to semantic knowledge of the students are used as stimuli.
The point of the article is the idea that an activity, an image and a word are the means to spiritualize a body and to externalize spirit. Each o them is a heterogeneous entity: a kind of metaform where both internal and external forms appear. E.g. an activity being considered as an external form includes an image and a word. The same structure is peculiar to a word and an image. Because of such a structure an activity, an image and a word are as much corporeal as they are spiritual. A play of their external and internal forms is extended to interrelationship of the body, the soul and the spirit. It is argued that such a model of reasoning may be of use for psychotherapeutic practices.
The introduction describes the concept in the "hard"and "soft" sciences.
Traditionally phenomenology was considered as the philosophical movement that pays no attention to the problem of medium understood as the material mediator of thinking process. Admittedly, this media-indifference of phenomenology results from its subjective-idealistic orientation. Acknowledging the truth of this retrospective interpretation the alternative look at the problem of relationship between phenomenology and media studies offered in this article is future-oriented and takes as its starting point the very idea of phenomenality considered as main theme of phenomenological researches. As opposed to plural and particular phenomena, holistic phenomenality allows us to think the object of phenomenological researches as a consistent field of primary appearance which embraces not only the objective structures of phenomenological experience, but also the subjective ones. In this sense primary phenomenality is the primordial medium of any appearance. The visual image (and its experience) is offered as the best model for explication of phenomenality understood in terms of mediality.
The book describes the concepts of chaos and order in the "hard" and "soft" sciences.
The article describes the structures of autobiographical narration in the novels and essays of the austrian writer E. Canetti.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.