Handel's Operas in the Context of Modern Stage Direction: on the Question of Implementing the Cinematography Composition Principles in an Opera Play
The article is based on the authors' attending modern performances of Baroque operas by Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759) in 2019, in the theaters of three German cities: Halle, Bad Lauchstädt and Bernburg. The first, which is the composer’s birthplace, annually hosts the international Handel music festival, dedicated to the study of the great Saxon’s and his contemporaries’ works. The concept of the festival in 2019 was related to the study of female characters represented in Handel’s operas: "Handel's women – sensitive, heroic, sublime".
Comprehending the considered scientific and artistic concept, the authors come to the conclusion that the possibilities of directors’ interpretations of ancient operas have significantly expanded due to the incorporation of composition principles of cinematographic editing and expressive means of modern, primarily screen arts into both musical and stage dramaturgy. To study this phenomenon, we used a scientific apparatus developed in Russian science by Lev Vygotskij, who, exploring the fiction literature protagonist’s spiritual world, revealed his psychological contradictions, expressed as the conflict between plot and story, and by Sergey Eizenshteyn, who, knowing well Vygotskij’s manuscript of "Psychology of art" and influenced by his ideas, created his own "psychology of art", presented on the pages of his works from various years.
In this article, revealing the essence of processes mentioned above gave its authors an opportunity to see, in the interpretations of Handel's operas by German directors, a "building of meaning" phenomenon, produced by merging of the two seemingly irreconcilably conflicted layers of consciousness: the Baroque – and the modern, that has developed over the last century.
F. Werfel about G. Verdi (based on the composition «Verdi. Novel of the opera») (by Zusman V. G., Zusman N. D.). In this paper the cultural opposition «Verdi - Wagner» is discussed. The opposition is described by the Austrian writer Franz Werfel in his «Verdi. Novel of the opera». Werfel compares the artistic world and the personality of the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi with the German composer Richard Wagner. The author comes to conclusion, that the principle of melody, the power of an individual human voice expressed in the music of Verdi are much more important than the combined force of the instruments in the orchestra of Wagner.
Objective: the main objective of the paper is to systemize the approaches to reveal consumer preferences in the market if performing arts. We focus on the data used in empirical studies, main variables and their measures to determine the preferences and econometric methods of preferences identification.
Methodology: we use metaanalysis of recent papers on the estimation of demand for performing arts and identification of theatregoers’ preferences as main methodology for this research.
Results: the main result is the review of revealed and stated preferences methods, description of its applicability and critical analysis. We also systemized the main variables which determine the consumer behavior in the market of performing arts.
Area of application: this research is aimed to help theatres which are motivated to study the demand function on their services and the portrait of the theatregoer. This study may be applied for tuning the marketing management system and pricing strategy of a theatre.
Conclusions: study of the theatre consumer behavior may be done with the real sales data (method of revealed preferences) or with the consumer survey data (method of stated preferences). Demand and preferences of theatre consumers depend on characteristics of consumer, characteristics of hall and place in a hall, characteristics and date and time of play and performance. Individual preferences, their willingness to pay for attendance and price elasticity of demand is heterogeneous and should be taken into account when modelling the preferences and making management decisions.
This paper deals with the problem of language of Theatre of Cruelty. Theatre of Cruelty is a theatrical project and metaphysical revolution proposed by Antonin Artaud in 1929-1936. It was not merely a suggestion of a new theater, but an attempt to bring back the global meaning to the world lost in the process of separation from culture. Artaud is trying to build a new language as a way of changing the world within the theater. This article discusses the semantics and syntax of Theatre of Cruelty, as an independent language, and presents the analysis of the semantics of the language through the analysis proposed by Gilles Deleuze.
An interview with Jan Latham-Koenig, the outstanding conductor from Flanders, who works in Bruges and the Novaya Opera Theatre in Moscow, is devoted to the modern inter-pretations of classical opera pieces. The issue is revealed in a comparative analysis of his conduc-tion in Russia and in theaters of Western countries. One of the main problems is foreign languages, which are very difficult for Russian performers, especially German and even more so French, not only for soloists, but also for the choir. The second problem is twofold: dedication and discipline, which are inextricably linked. This is what Latham-Koenig is trying to achieve in his work. Another challenge is interpretation, which is most evident in the performance of Italian operas by Russian singers—too “heavy” and free interpretation music by Verdi and Puccini. At the same time, this heaviness comes from the fact that Russian singers sing all parts in an aria-like way, even recitatives that need to be almost pronounced, maintaining a conversational rhythm. Using the example of Monteverdi, the conductor shows that for this composer, the secret is to comprehend recitative as conversation during singing, and arias as singing during conversation. An important challenge is creation of an artistic image and conveying it to the public. Despite the tendency to “modernize” classical works, Latham-Koenig does not support this trend of the present-day productions, considering that the music itself was already an interpretation of the libretto, so introducing any additional interpretation into it is excessive. In addition to the questions related to his profession, a special place in the interview is given to the role of politics, which in Russia, in contrast to Western countries, has always been tightly bound with art.
Studying the heterogeneity of consumers allows to price the product differently for consumer segments or groups of a product. In this paper we estimate a model of aggregate demand for Perm Opera and Ballet Theatre focusing on the heterogeneity in price effect on demand for tickets on different performances and seats. We estimate parameters of demand function using censored quantile regression that accounts for the limited capacity of the theatre house. We reveal the price effect variation across different types of theatrical productions and seats with lower elastic demand on ballets and for seats of higher quality.
The article is devoted to the problem of communicative features of the constructive structure of the font identity in the city branding sphere. This problem is considered in the framework of the nonlinearity of visual communication based on typology, comparative and structural analysis of the font identity of the world's cities. The article analyzes the brand identity of the city of Murmansk (2015) with the use of qualitative research methods: an expert interview with the designer of Murmansk identity.
This paper explores, mainly from a legal perspective, the extent to which the Russian regulations of traditional TV and online audiovisual media policies have been consistent with the Council of Europe (hereinafter CoE) standards. The study compares between the CoE and Russian approaches to specific aspects of audiovisual regulation including licensing, media ownership, public service media, digitalization, and national production. The paper first studies the CoE perspective through examining its conventional provisions related to audiovisual media, the case law of the European Court of Human Rights as well as the CoE non-binding documents. The paper then considers Russian national legislation governing audiovisual media and the Russian general jurisdiction courts’ practice on broadcast licensing. The paper suggests that the Russian audiovisual regulations are insufficiently compatible with the CoE standards and more in line with the Soviet regulatory traditions.
Systems Thinking in Museums explores systems thinking and the practical implication of it using real-life museum examples to illuminate various entry points and stages of implementation and their challenges and opportunities. Its premise is that museums can be better off when they operate as open, dynamic, and learning systems as a whole as opposed to closed, stagnant, and status quo systems that are compartmentalized and hierarchical. This book also suggests ways to incorporate systems thinking based on reflective questions and steps with hopes to encourage museum professionals to employ systems thinking in their own museum. Few books explore theory in practice in meaningful and applicable ways; this book offers to unravel complex theories as applied in everyday practice through examples from national and international museums.