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## Context-Free Languages and Associative Algebras with Algebraic Hilbert Series

In this paper, homological methods together with the theory of formal languages of theoretical computer science are proved to be effective tools to determine the growth and the Hilbert series of an associative algebra. Namely, we construct a class of finitely presented associative algebras related to a family of context-free languages. This allows us to connect the Hilbert series of these algebras with the generating functions of such languages. In particular, we obtain a class of finitely presented graded algebras with non-rational algebraic Hilbert series.

Formal language theory has a deep connection with such areas as static code analysis, graph database querying, formal verifica- tion, and compressed data processing. Many application problems can be formulated in terms of languages intersection. The Bar-Hillel theo- rem states that context-free languages are closed under intersection with a regular set. This theorem has a constructive proof and thus provides a formal justification of correctness of the algorithms for applications mentioned above. Mechanization of the Bar-Hillel theorem, therefore, is both a fundamental result of formal language theory and a basis for the certified implementation of the algorithms for applications. In this work, we present the mechanized proof of the Bar-Hillel theorem in Coq.

The Hilbert series is one of the most important algebraic invariants of innite-dimensional graded associative algebra. The noncommutative Groebner basis machine reduces the prob- lem of nding Hilbert series to the case of monomial algebra. We apply both noncommutative and commutative Groebner bases theory as well as the theory of formal languages to provide a new method for symbolic computation of Hilbert series of graded associative algebras. Whereas in general the problem of computation oh such a Hilbert series is known to be algorithmically unsolvable, we have describe a general class of algebras (called homologically unambiguous) with unambiguous context-free set of relations for which our method give eective algorithms. Unlike previously known methods, our algorithm is applicable to algebras with irrational Hilbert series and produces an alge- braic equation which denes the series. The examples include innitely presented monomials algebras as well as nitely presented algebras with irrational Hilbert series such that the associated monomial algebras are homologically unambiguous.

We consider regular realizability problems, which consist in verifying whether the intersection of a regular language which is the problem input and a fixed language (filter) which is a parameter of the problem is nonempty. We study the algorithmic complexity of regular realizability problems for context-free filters. This characteristic is consistent with the rational dominance relation of CF languages. However, as we prove, it is more rough. We also give examples of both P-complete and NL-complete regular realizability problems for CF filters. Furthermore, we give an example of a subclass of CF languages for filters of which the regular realizability problems can have an intermediate complexity. These are languages with polynomially bounded rational indices.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.